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Test 1: HIV infection

  1. HIV is a:
    • Fungus
    • Spirochaete
    • Bacterium
    • Virus
  2. How does HIV cause disease?
    • It destroys red cells.
    • It damages the immune system.
    • It damages the liver.
    • It lowers the level of antibodies.
  3. How is HIV usually transmitted from person to person?
    • By sexual intercourse
    • By droplet spread (coughing and sneezing)
    • By insect bites
    • By donating blood
  4. People with HIV infection:
    • Are always clinically ill
    • Can appear healthy
    • Are only infectious if they have clinical signs
    • Are usually male in Africa
  5. How common is HIV infection in pregnant women in South Africa?
    • Rare (about 5%)
    • Uncommon (about 15%)
    • Common (about 30%)
    • Very common (about 60%)
  6. When is HIV usually spread from mother to child?
    • During pregnancy
    • During labour and vaginal delivery
    • During exclusive breastfeeding
    • While holding, kissing and cuddling the infant
  7. Which test is usually used to screen adults for HIV infection?
    • VDRL test
    • PCR test
    • p24 antigen test
    • Rapid test
  8. Screening tests for HIV infection usually become positive when the person has been infected for:
    • Six days
    • Six weeks
    • Six months
    • Six years
  9. During the progression of untreated HIV infection the CD4 count:
    • Rises
    • Falls
    • Stays the same
    • Is not important
  10. In the period soon after a person is infected with HIV the viral load:
    • Rises rapidly
    • Increases only slightly
    • Remains undetectable
    • Drops
  11. Acute seroconversion illness usually presents with:
    • A glandular fever-type illness
    • Jaundice
    • Genital ulcers
    • Vaginal or urethral discharge
  12. How long is the latent phase of HIV infection in adults?
    • Six weeks
    • Commonly three to six months
    • About one year
    • Usually five to 10 years
  13. Which clinical sign is common in stage 1 HIV infection?
    • Night sweats
    • Fever
    • Persistent generalised lymphadenopathy
    • Weight loss
  14. Which clinical condition is common in stage 2 HIV infection?
    • Skin rash
    • Severe diarrhoea
    • Extrapulmonary tuberculosis
    • Oral candidiasis (thrush)
  15. Which clinical condition is common in stage 3 HIV infection?
    • Severe bacterial pneumonia
    • Pneumocystis pneumonia
    • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
    • Oesophageal candidiasis
  16. Adult patients are said to have AIDS when their HIV infection reaches:
    • Stage 1
    • Stage 2
    • Stage 3
    • Stage 4
  17. What is a common feature of terminal HIV infection?
    • A CD4 count above 500 cells/µl
    • Mild weight loss
    • Dementia
    • Deafness
  18. Which of the following is an AIDS-defining illness?
    • Cryptococcal meningitis
    • Bacterial meningitis
    • Pulmonary tuberculosis
    • Shingles (varicella zoster)
  19. Which malignancy is common in patients with advanced HIV infection?
    • Leukaemia
    • Lung cancer
    • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • Breast cancer
  20. Kaposi’s sarcoma usually presents with:
    • Blood in the stool
    • Multiple pink, purple or dark brown, black patches in the skin
    • A severe cough and shortness of breath
    • Headaches