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Test 4: Antiretroviral drugs

  1. Which is one of the main current goals of antiretroviral treatment?
    • To suppress the viral load
    • To cure HIV infection
    • To allow the patient to have a pain-free death
    • To prevent repeated infection with HIV
  2. How many classes of antiretroviral drugs are usually used in South Africa?
    • Two
    • Four
    • Five
    • Ten
  3. Which of the following drugs is a ‘nuc’?
    • AZT
    • Nevirapine
    • Efavirenz
    • Lopinavir/ritonavir
  4. Antiretroviral drugs for treatment should always be used:
    • Alone
    • In pairs
    • In combinations of three or more
    • Together with an antibiotic
  5. Standardised regimens of treatment:
    • Have many disadvantages
    • Are simpler to use
    • Are more expensive than individualised treatment
    • Have a high risk of side effects
  6. Which drug is part of the first-line combination?
    • TDF
    • Lopinavir/ritonavir
    • ddI
    • Rifampicin
  7. Which drug is part of the second-line combination?
    • 3TC
    • TDF
    • Nevirapine
    • Efavirenz
  8. Both first- and second-line combinations contain:
    • Two ‘nucs’
    • Two ‘non-nucs’
    • Two ‘PIs’
    • All of the above
  9. Which antiretroviral drug should not be taken during the first trimester of pregnancy?
    • AZT
    • Nevirapine
    • Lopinavir/ritonavir
    • All commonly used drugs are safe
  10. Most first line antiretroviral drugs are taken:
    • Once a day
    • Twice a day
    • Three times a day
    • On an empty stomach
  11. Minor side effects such as nausea, loose stools and tiredness are common with:
    • Most antiretroviral drugs during the first weeks of treatment
    • ‘Nucs’ after the first six weeks of treatment
    • 3TC if it is taken with meals
    • Efavirenz if it is taken on an empty stomach
  12. A generalised rash is common with:
    • 3TC
    • Lopinavir/ritonavir
    • Nevirapine
    • d4T
  13. A sign of a serious rash which needs urgent treatment is:
    • A generalised pink rash in a patient who feels well
    • A blistering skin rash which also affects the mucous membranes of the mouth
    • A rash on the face and chest which lasts longer than a week
    • A rash which only appears after the first month of treatment
  14. Clinical hepatitis with abdominal pain, jaundice and nausea is a serious side effect of:
    • AZT
    • 3TC
    • Nevirapine
    • ddI
  15. Anaemia is a well-recognised side effect of:
    • Efavirenz
    • TDF
    • Lopinavir/ritonavir
    • AZT
  16. ddI and d4T should not be used together as they both may cause:
    • Severe headaches
    • Peripheral neuropathy
    • Severe skin rashes
    • Anaemia
  17. A burning pain in the feet is a symptom of:
    • Lactic acidosis
    • Peripheral neuropathy
    • Nevirapine sensitivity
    • Pancreatitis
  18. Lipodystrophy is a recognised side effect of:
    • Co-trimoxazole
    • Nevirapine
    • AZT
    • Anti-TB treatment
  19. Weight loss, nausea, abdominal pain and tiredness after months of successful antiretroviral treatment suggests:
    • Lactic acidosis
    • Lipodystrophy
    • An emotional problem
    • Antiretroviral treatment is no longer effective
  20. Which antiretroviral drug can cause renal damage?
    • Tenofovir
    • AZT
    • 3TC
    • Nevirapine