Close help

How to use this Learning Station

On this Learning Station, you can read and test your knowledge. Tap on a book to open its chapter list. In each chapter, you can take a quiz to test your knowledge.

To take tests, you must register with your email address or cell number. It is free to register and to take tests.

For help email info@bettercare.co.za or call +27 76 657 0353.

Printed books

Learning is easiest with printed books. To order printed books, email info@bettercare.co.za or call +27 76 657 0353.

Visit bettercare.co.za for information.

Test 5: Management of patients on anti­retroviral treatment

  1. When should prophylactic co-trimoxazole be stopped?
    • When antiretroviral treatment is started
    • When the patient starts to feel better
    • When the CD4 count has risen above 200 cells/µl
    • When the patient has been on antiretroviral treatment for a year
  2. When should the routine follow-up visits be done during the first four months after starting antiretroviral treatment?
    • Weekly
    • Every two weeks
    • Monthly (four, eight and 12 weeks)
    • At six and 12 weeks
  3. When should education and counselling be provided?
    • During the preparation of antiretroviral treatment only
    • At the first treatment visit only
    • During the first three months of antiretroviral treatment only
    • At every visit
  4. Who are the members of the multi­disciplinary team at the antiretroviral clinic?
    • The doctors
    • Both the doctors and the nurses
    • All the staff
    • Both the staff and patients
  5. What should be done at each follow up visit?
    • The patient should be weighed.
    • The CD4 count should be measured.
    • The viral load should be measured.
    • The serum ALT (alanine aminotransferase) should be measured.
  6. How often should medicines be collected from the clinic?
    • Every week
    • Every one to three months
    • Every four to five months
    • Every six months
  7. A haemoglobin (Hb) level and differential count at months 3 and 6 should be measured in patients receiving:
    • Nevirapine
    • d4T
    • 3TC
    • AZT
  8. What monitoring for side effects is needed for TDF?
    • Creatine clearance monitoring
    • Full blood count
    • Fasting serum cholesterol and triglyceride
    • Serum ALT (alanine aminotransferase)
  9. How often should a patient be seen by the doctor or nurse if antiretroviral treatment is successful?
    • Every month
    • Every three months
    • Every six months
    • Every year
  10. For how long can treatment be successful?
    • Usually for a year
    • From one to five years
    • From five to 10 years
    • More than 10 years
  11. What indicates treatment failure?
    • The development of immune reconstruction inflammatory syndrome
    • A CD4 count above 200 cells/µl
    • An undetectable viral load
    • A viral load above 1000 copies/ml
  12. What should be done if the second-line of treatment fails in spite of excellent adherence?
    • Refer the patient for resistance testing
    • Change back to the first-line treatment
    • Use both first- and second-line treatment together
    • Add rifampicin and co-trimoxazole
  13. What are the dangers of poor adherence?
    • Treatment failure
    • Serious side effects
    • Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    • It will upset the clinic staff
  14. How can adherence be improved?
    • By taking both the morning and evening medication at lunch time
    • By taking medication three times a week
    • By setting an alarm clock as a reminder
    • By collecting the medication from the clinic each day
  15. How can antiretroviral drug resistance be avoided?
    • Use monotherapy (one drug only)
    • Use two drugs together from the same class
    • Take a combination of at least three drugs from two classes
    • Take at least 60% of all doses
  16. What is the commonest cause of treatment failure?
    • Poor adherence
    • Pregnancy
    • Taking antiretroviral drugs with meals
    • Viral ‘blips’
  17. Rifampicin markedly reduces the blood levels of:
    • ‘Nucs’ such as AZT
    • ‘Non-nucs’ such as efavirenz
    • ‘PIs’ such as Aluvia
    • All antiretroviral drugs
  18. What should be done if a patient has a severe drug reaction to an antiretroviral drug?
    • Stop that drug.
    • Stop all antiretroviral drugs.
    • Continue the treatment but give steroids such as intravenous prednisone.
    • Continue the treatment but give an oral antihistamine.
  19. Which patients are at the greatest risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?
    • Patients who are generally well when the antiretroviral treatment is started
    • Patients with a low viral load
    • Patients with a very low CD4 count
    • Patients who are younger than 20 years old
  20. Which HIV-associated infection is commonest with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in South Africa?
    • Cryptococcal meningitis
    • Cytomegalovirus retinitis
    • Leprosy
    • Tuberculosis