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Test 6: HIV-associated infections

  1. Which is a common HIV-associated infection?
    • Chicken pox
    • Tuberculosis
    • Syphilis
    • Glandular fever
  2. What is an ‘AIDS-defining’ illness?
    • An infection which occurs at any stage of HIV infection
    • An infection which is common in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients
    • An infection which indicates stage 4 disease
    • A rash suggesting a diagnosis of acute seroconversion illness
  3. Secondary prophylaxis is important in patients who have had:
    • Oesophageal candidiasis
    • Cryptococcal meningitis
    • Kaposi’s sarcoma
    • Aphthous ulcers
  4. Oral candidiasis is treated with:
    • Penicillin
    • Local steroids (e.g. Kenalog in Orobase)
    • Topical nystatin drops
    • AZT
  5. Which organisms may cause diarrhoea in HIV patients?
    • Staphylococcus
    • Non-typhoid Salmonella
    • Candida
    • Toxoplasma
  6. Cryptosporidium may cause:
    • Severe headaches and convulsion
    • White patches in the mouth
    • Chronic cough
    • Chronic diarrhoea
  7. What is shingles?
    • Severe seborrhoea of the scalp
    • A common side effect of nevirapine
    • A painful rash caused by Varicella zoster
    • Bilateral enlargement of the parotids
  8. What is a common cause of a sore mouth in HIV patients?
    • Oral hairy leucoplakia
    • Herpes infection
    • Tuberculosis
    • Streptococcal infections
  9. Recurrent genital herpes with large ulcers should be treated with:
    • Topical nystatin
    • Local fluconazole
    • Oral acyclovir
    • Penicillin
  10. How does oesophageal candidiasis present?
    • Difficult and painful swallowing
    • Vomiting blood
    • A vaginal discharge
    • Ulcers in the mouth
  11. Oesophageal candidiasis should be treated with:
    • Gentian violet
    • Oral fluconazole
    • Local nystatin
    • Metronidazole (Flagyl)
  12. Pneumocystis infection presents with:
    • Diarrhoea
    • Rash
    • Meningitis
    • Pneumonia
  13. Pneumocystis should be treated with:
    • Oral co-trimoxazole
    • Ampicillin and gentamicin
    • Anti-TB medication, especially INH
    • Intravenous acyclovir
  14. The diagnosis of Cryptococcal infection is confirmed by examining the:
    • Chest X-ray
    • Cerebrospinal fluid
    • Urine
    • Brain scan
  15. Sudden blindness in HIV patients is usually caused by an infection with:
    • Cryptococcus
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    • Herpes simplex
  16. Tuberculosis is common in HIV patients:
    • Only when they are clinically ill
    • Only when the CD4 count is lower than 200 cells/µl
    • Only when the CD4 count is lower than 50 cells/µl
    • At any time during HIV infection
  17. Tuberculosis:
    • Usually presents as meningitis in HIV-positive patients
    • Can be prevented with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
    • Slows down the progression of HIV
    • Is a common cause of death in HIV patients
  18. How is the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis usually confirmed?
    • By doing a brain scan
    • By examining the sputum
    • By performing a Mantoux skin test
    • By performing a full blood count
  19. Should HIV infection and tuberculosis be treated at the same time?
    • Start the anti-TB treatment first.
    • Treat the HIV infection first for six months before starting the anti-TB treatment.
    • There is no problem with treating the HIV infection and tuberculosis at the same time.
    • Start the antiretroviral and anti-TB treatments together but also give the patient large doses of steroids for the first three months.
  20. Drugs used to treat HIV and tuberculosis may both cause:
    • Haemolytic anaemia
    • Cancer
    • Necrotising ulcerative gingivitis
    • Peripheral neuropathy