Close help

How to use this Learning Station

On this Learning Station, you can read and test your knowledge. Tap on a book to open its chapter list. In each chapter, you can take a quiz to test your knowledge.

To take tests, you must register with your email address or cell number. It is free to register and to take tests.

For help email info@bettercare.co.za or call +27 76 657 0353.

Printed books and CPD points

Learning is easiest with printed books. To order printed books, email info@bettercare.co.za or call +27 76 657 0353.

Visit bettercare.co.za for information.

Test 6: HIV-associated infections

  1. Which is a common HIV-associated infection?
    • Chicken pox
    • Tuberculosis
    • Syphilis
    • Glandular fever
  2. What is an ‘AIDS-defining’ illness?
    • An infection which occurs at any stage of HIV infection
    • An infection which is common in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients
    • An infection which indicates stage 4 disease
    • A rash suggesting a diagnosis of acute seroconversion illness
  3. Secondary prophylaxis is important in patients who have had:
    • Oesophageal candidiasis
    • Cryptococcal meningitis
    • Kaposi’s sarcoma
    • Aphthous ulcers
  4. Oral candidiasis is treated with:
    • Penicillin
    • Local steroids (e.g. Kenalog in Orobase)
    • Topical nystatin drops
    • AZT
  5. Which organisms may cause diarrhoea in HIV patients?
    • Staphylococcus
    • Non-typhoid Salmonella
    • Candida
    • Toxoplasma
  6. Cryptosporidium may cause:
    • Severe headaches and convulsion
    • White patches in the mouth
    • Chronic cough
    • Chronic diarrhoea
  7. What is shingles?
    • Severe seborrhoea of the scalp
    • A common side effect of nevirapine
    • A painful rash caused by Varicella zoster
    • Bilateral enlargement of the parotids
  8. What is a common cause of a sore mouth in HIV patients?
    • Oral hairy leucoplakia
    • Herpes infection
    • Tuberculosis
    • Streptococcal infections
  9. Recurrent genital herpes with large ulcers should be treated with:
    • Topical nystatin
    • Local fluconazole
    • Oral acyclovir
    • Penicillin
  10. How does oesophageal candidiasis present?
    • Difficult and painful swallowing
    • Vomiting blood
    • A vaginal discharge
    • Ulcers in the mouth
  11. Oesophageal candidiasis should be treated with:
    • Gentian violet
    • Oral fluconazole
    • Local nystatin
    • Metronidazole (Flagyl)
  12. Pneumocystis infection presents with:
    • Diarrhoea
    • Rash
    • Meningitis
    • Pneumonia
  13. Pneumocystis should be treated with:
    • Oral co-trimoxazole
    • Ampicillin and gentamicin
    • Anti-TB medication, especially INH
    • Intravenous acyclovir
  14. The diagnosis of Cryptococcal infection is confirmed by examining the:
    • Chest X-ray
    • Cerebrospinal fluid
    • Urine
    • Brain scan
  15. Sudden blindness in HIV patients is usually caused by an infection with:
    • Cryptococcus
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    • Herpes simplex
  16. Tuberculosis is common in HIV patients:
    • Only when they are clinically ill
    • Only when the CD4 count is lower than 200 cells/µl
    • Only when the CD4 count is lower than 50 cells/µl
    • At any time during HIV infection
  17. Tuberculosis:
    • Usually presents as meningitis in HIV-positive patients
    • Can be prevented with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
    • Slows down the progression of HIV
    • Is a common cause of death in HIV patients
  18. How is the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis usually confirmed?
    • By doing a brain scan
    • By examining the sputum
    • By performing a Mantoux skin test
    • By performing a full blood count
  19. Should HIV infection and tuberculosis be treated at the same time?
    • Start the anti-TB treatment first.
    • Treat the HIV infection first for six months before starting the anti-TB treatment.
    • There is no problem with treating the HIV infection and tuberculosis at the same time.
    • Start the antiretroviral and anti-TB treatments together but also give the patient large doses of steroids for the first three months.
  20. Drugs used to treat HIV and tuberculosis may both cause:
    • Haemolytic anaemia
    • Cancer
    • Necrotising ulcerative gingivitis
    • Peripheral neuropathy