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Test 1: The normal breast

  1. What is the breast line?
    • A line from the armpit to the groin where breasts can develop
    • A blue line which is commonly seen around the areola in young girls
    • A line between the two nipples which indicates where to apply heart massage in infants who do not breathe by themselves after delivery
    • A line to assess whether breasts are drooping in older women
  2. What are breasts like in most normal infants at birth?
    • Usually the breasts are very small and any breast development is abnormal
    • The breasts cannot develop as newborn infants do not produce sex hormones
    • Only female infants may develop swollen breasts after birth
    • A small lump (a breast bud) can usually be felt under the nipple
  3. During puberty:
    • The rate of breast development is always the same in both breasts so that both breasts are the same size
    • One breast larger than the other (asymmetrical breasts) is common
    • The right breast always starts to develop first
    • One breast larger than the other (asymmetrical breast development) is abnormal
  4. The nipple-areola complex (NAC):
    • Is normal and consists of the nipple and surrounding areola
    • Is a common emotional problem in adolescent girls
    • Is a form of eczema which needs treatment
    • Is an early sign of breast malignancy
  5. What is the function of the lobes in the breast?
    • They produce estrogen
    • They produce milk
    • They determine the size and shape of the breast during puberty
    • They attach the breast to the chest wall
  6. The size of the breasts in a woman who is not breastfeeding is mostly dependent on:
    • The size of the muscles under the breasts
    • The size of the lobes
    • The number of the lobes
    • The amount of supportive and fatty tissue
  7. Where do most breast lymphatic’s drain to?
    • The neck
    • The abdomen
    • The armpit (axilla)
    • The chest
  8. During the menstrual cycle:
    • If a woman has normal lumpy breasts these lumps increase in size before the start of the period
    • The lumps get bigger during the period
    • The lumps get bigger during the week after the period
    • The size of the lumps do not change with the menstrual cycle
  9. What breast changes occur during pregnancy?
    • There are very few changes in women who have small breasts
    • Breast tenderness is common early in pregnancy
    • Colostrum is only produced after delivery
    • Breast changes occur earlier if the fetus is female
  10. How do breasts change in older women?
    • They become smaller because the ducts disappear
    • They become harder as fatty tissue is lost
    • They become softer with an increase in fatty tissue
    • They only change and hang down more if the woman had breastfed her infants
  11. What are aberrations of normal development and involution (ANDI)?
    • Early signs of breast cancer
    • Common variations of normal which may result in the formation of lumps
    • Common problems seen during childhood
    • They are not common and of no clinical importance
  12. What breast changes are common in women between 15 and 25 years of age?
    • Cyst formation
    • Bleeding from one or both nipples
    • Fibroadenomas
    • Duct ectasia
  13. What is a sign of a fibroadenoma?
    • Painful breast lump
    • Painless breast lump
    • Nipple discharge
    • Nipple inversion
  14. Fibroadenomas are due to:
    • The use of oral contraceptives
    • Use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
    • Excessive lobe development
    • Pregnancy
  15. Inverted nipples are:
    • Common
    • Part of the normal breast changes during pregnancy
    • Only important if they are present at puberty
    • Only important if they develop in men
  16. What breast problem is common during the mature reproductive years?
    • Bloody nipple discharge
    • Breast pain in the days before a period
    • Breasts which continue to decrease in size as the women gets older
    • Loss of pigment from the nipple and areola
  17. What breast changes are common in women between 35 and 55 years of age?
    • Cyst formation
    • Fibroadenomas
    • Pigmentation changes in the nipple-areola complex
    • Both nipples become inverted
  18. The typical clinical finding of a breast cyst is:
    • A watery nipple discharge
    • Nipple inversion
    • Redness of the overlying skin
    • A palpable smooth mass
  19. Ductal ectasia is:
    • Common during puberty
    • Common after menopause
    • Only seen in older men
    • Usually a problem during pregnancy
  20. What is a sign of duct ectasia?
    • Non-bloody nipple discharge
    • Breast lumps
    • Painful breasts
    • Enlarged nipples