Close help

How to use this Learning Station

On this Learning Station, you can read and test your knowledge. Tap on a book to open its chapter list. In each chapter, you can take a quiz to test your knowledge.

To take tests, you must register with your email address or cell number. It is free to register and to take tests.

For help email info@bettercare.co.za or call +27 76 657 0353.

Printed books

Learning is easiest with printed books. To order printed books, email info@bettercare.co.za or call +27 76 657 0353.

Visit bettercare.co.za for information.

Test 3: Special investigations of the breast

  1. The aim of special investigations of the breast is:
    • To use surgery to make a diagnosis
    • To use a mammogram alone to make a diagnosis
    • To use a mammogram and ultrasound scan together to make a diagnosis
    • To make a diagnosis without having to do surgery
  2. What is the triple test to investigate for breast cancer?
    • Clinically examine the breast, axilla and abdomen
    • Clinical assessment, imaging and cytology
    • Mammogram, ultrasound scan and biopsy
    • Chest X-ray, mammogram and needle aspiration
  3. When can an accurate diagnosis be made with the triple test?
    • When all three tests are in agreement
    • When two of the three tests are abnormal
    • When any one test is abnormal
    • An accurate diagnosis cannot be made with the triple test
  4. A mammogram makes use of:
    • Ultrasound
    • X-rays
    • Large magnets
    • Radio waves
  5. Population screening is aimed at:
    • Everyone in the population
    • Only a certain section of the population who may develop the problem being screened for
    • Only people in the population at high risk for that problem
    • Only for people who have early clinical signs of that problem
  6. Population mammogram screening for breast cancer:
    • Is available for most women in South Africa
    • Is available for all women over the age of 50 years
    • Is available for all women in some provinces only
    • Is not available to women who cannot afford private medical care
  7. Women with a strong family history of breast cancer should have regular mammograms starting:
    • From puberty
    • 25 years of age
    • At the age of 40 years or 10 years before the earliest age when a family member presented with breast cancer, whichever came first
    • At the age of 50 years or when they reach menopause, whichever comes first
  8. A woman with any breast complaint should have a mammogram if she is over the age of:
    • 15 years
    • 25 years
    • 40 years
    • 70 years
  9. Which important abnormality on a mammogram suggests cancer?
    • Dense breasts
    • Microcalcifications
    • Multiple small cysts
    • Fatty breasts
  10. Is a mammogram painful?
    • It may be uncomfortable but should not be painful
    • It is only painful in older women who have soft breasts
    • It is not painful unless a woman is bruised
    • It is painful. That is why mammograms are not repeated every year
  11. Does a mammogram commonly cause cancer?
    • Yes
    • Only if they are repeated every year
    • Only if there is a strong family history of cancer
    • No
  12. What should be done if a mammogram shows a mass?
    • It is essential that an ultrasound scan is done
    • In private practice an MRI scan should be done
    • The mammogram should be repeated in 3 months to assess whether the mass has increased in size or not
    • The mass must be investigated
  13. How reliable is a mammogram in detecting cancer?
    • All cancers will be detected
    • 15% of cancers will not show up on a mammogram
    • 25% of cancers will not show up on a mammogram
    • A mammogram is not reliable, especially in older women
  14. An ultrasound scan is particularly useful in:
    • Younger women
    • Women with small breasts
    • Women with fatty breasts
    • Older women
  15. Which method is very useful at determining whether a lump is a cyst or a solid mass?
    • Clinical examination
    • A mammogram
    • An ultrasound scan
    • An MRI scan
  16. What is cytology?
    • A combination of a mammogram and ultrasound scan
    • An examination of cells obtained by fine needle biopsy
    • An examination of tissue obtained by core biopsy needle
    • A method of assessing whether cells from a cancer have hormone receptors
  17. What is an advantage of cytology?
    • It does not give false positive or false negative results
    • It is accurate in diagnosing ductal carcinoma in situ
    • It is safe and cannot cause a pneumothorax
    • It is simple and the results can be obtained the same day
  18. Fine needle aspiration:
    • Requires a general anaesthetic in an operating theatre
    • Requires a local anaesthetic
    • Is not commonly used as it is technically difficult
    • Is a very helpful way to investigate a breast lump
  19. What is a core biopsy (Tru-cut) needle?
    • A special device to obtain a small sample of tissue
    • A needle for performing fine needle aspiration
    • A cutting needle used in an open excision
    • A special needle to mark the lump in a stereotactic biopsy
  20. What are the advantages of an excision biopsy?
    • It does not require local or general anaesthesia
    • It is cheap
    • It gives a definite diagnosis
    • It does not cause a cosmetic abnormality