Close help

How to use this Learning Station

On this Learning Station, you can read and test your knowledge. Tap on a book to open its chapter list. In each chapter, you can take a quiz to test your knowledge.

To take tests, you must register with your email address or cell number. It is free to register and to take tests.

For help email or call +27 76 657 0353.

Printed books

Learning is easiest with printed books. To order printed books, email or call +27 76 657 0353.

Visit for information.

Test 5: Cancer of the breast

  1. Where does breast cancer usually start?
    • In the lobes
    • In the ducts
    • In the connective tissue
    • In the fat
  2. Carcinoma in situ means:
    • The cancer cells are not invasive yet
    • The cancer has not spread out of the breast
    • The cancer has not spread to the other breast
    • The cancer has not spread beyond the lymph nodes
  3. Which breast condition is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer?
    • Breast abscess
    • Pregnancy
    • Atypical ductal hyperplasia
    • Breast trauma
  4. How often is the cause of breast cancer unknown?
    • Less than 10%
    • 30%
    • 60%
    • 90%
  5. How is breast cancer spread?
    • Directly through the chest wall
    • Only via the lymphatics
    • Only via the blood stream
    • By both the lymphatics and blood stream
  6. What factor determines whether a breast cancer is likely to spread or not?
    • The size of the cells
    • The shape of the cells
    • The stickiness of the cells
    • The age of the cells
  7. Do all breast cancers behave in the same way?
    • Yes, as they all grow fast
    • Only in young women when they all grow slowly
    • Only in postmenopausal women when they all grow fast
    • No, as some breast cancers grow fast and others slowly
  8. What does prognosis mean?
    • The age when the cancer presents
    • The probable outcome of the disease
    • When successful treatment can be stopped
    • The time when treatment starts
  9. The grade of a breast cancer indicates:
    • The risk of it spreading
    • The size of the tumour
    • The type of tumour
    • Whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or not
  10. What does the stage of the breast cancer mean:
    • Whether one or both breasts are involved
    • Where in the breast the cancer is found
    • How far it has spread
    • The type of cells seen on cytology
  11. Estrogen receptors on breast cancer cells:
    • Are only found in women and not men
    • Suggest that the cancer will not spread rapidly
    • Suggest that the cancer is very aggressive
    • Indicates that the cancer has spread from another part of the body
  12. The commonest type of breast cancer is:
    • Inflammatory
    • Tubular
    • Ductal
    • Papillary
  13. Lobular cancer is:
    • Usually low grade
    • Usually widely spread at the time of diagnosis
    • Easy to diagnose
    • Rare
  14. Breast cancer usually presents with:
    • A painful breast lump
    • A breast lump that is not painful
    • A large, swollen breast
    • A milky discharge from the nipple
  15. What is an important clinical sign of breast cancer?
    • Bruising of the breast
    • Pus from the nipple
    • Peau d’orange skin change
    • Breast tenderness
  16. What does a breast cancer look like on a mammogram?
    • A black area
    • Many small grey patches
    • Usually a large red area with both black and white patches
    • A white area
  17. When is a mammogram not reliable in diagnosing breast cancer?
    • In older women with fatty breasts
    • In young women with dense breasts
    • In women who have had a breast reduction
    • It is always very reliable
  18. What does a breast cancer look like on ultrasound?
    • A black area
    • A white area
    • A grey area in women of childbearing age
    • Ultrasound is of little value in diagnosing breast cancer
  19. To which organ does breast cancer usually spread?
    • The bone marrow
    • Lymph nodes in the abdomen
    • Lungs
    • Spleen
  20. Which investigation should be done in most women with breast cancer?
    • An X-ray of the long bones in the limbs
    • A MRI scan of the other breast
    • A CT scan of the brain
    • An ultrasound of the liver