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Test 13: Serious illnesses

  1. Acute rheumatic fever usually follows:
    • Pharyngitis.
    • Otitis media.
    • Impetigo.
    • Influenza.
  2. Repeated attacks of acute rheumatic fever may damage:
    • The kidneys.
    • The liver.
    • The heart.
    • The joints.
  3. What is a major criteria that is used in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever?
    • Chest pain.
    • Fever.
    • Flitting polyarthritis.
    • Cyanosis.
  4. How can a further attack of acute rheumatic fever be prevented?
    • Give oral penicillin for 10 days whenever the child has a common cold.
    • Give intramuscular benzathine penicillin every month.
    • Give oral erythromycin for a week if the child has a tooth filled or pulled out.
    • Unfortunately it cannot be prevented.
  5. Acute glomerulonephritis is usually caused by:
    • Streptococcal skin infection.
    • Klebsiella pneumonia.
    • E. coli urinary tract infection.
    • Miliary tuberculosis.
  6. What is an important sign of acute glomerulonephritis?
    • Dehydration.
    • Skin rash.
    • Enlarged kidneys.
    • Dark urine.
  7. What is a complication of acute glomerulonephritis?
    • Hypotension.
    • Hypertension.
    • Acute liver failure.
    • Damage to heart valves.
  8. Children with septicaemia:
    • Are generally unwell with a fever.
    • Have neck stiffness.
    • Are oedematous.
    • Are always shocked.
  9. A capillary filling time longer than 3 seconds is:
    • Normal.
    • Common in viral meningitis.
    • Usually due to fever.
    • A sign of shock.
  10. The first choice of antibiotics in septicaemia include:
    • Oral ampicillin.
    • Intravenous ceftriaxone.
    • Intramuscular gentamicin plus intravenous amikacin.
    • Oral nalidixic acid.
  11. In a seriously ill child with a rash always think of:
    • Chorea.
    • Gram positive meningitis.
    • Meningococcal septicaemia.
    • Urinary tract infection.
  12. What bacteria commonly cause meningitis in children?
    • Staphylococcus.
    • Pneumococcus.
    • Pseudomonas.
    • E.coli.
  13. What is a common symptom of meningitis in older children?
    • Severe headache and vomiting.
    • Shortness of breath.
    • Sudden blindness.
    • Earache.
  14. Can you tell clinically whether a child has viral or bacterial meningitis?
    • Yes, it is easy.
    • Only children with bacterial meningitis have neck stiffness.
    • Children with viral meningitis often are much worse after a lumbar puncture.
    • Usually you cannot be sure what type of meningitis is present.
  15. The emergency treatment of suspected bacterial meningitis is:
    • Urgent transfer to hospital for treatment.
    • Intravenous antibiotics before transferring the child.
    • Wait for the results of the lumbar puncture before starting treatment.
    • Steroids before the lumbar puncture.
  16. In a urinary tract infection the urine commonly contains:
    • Blood only.
    • Glucose.
    • Crystals.
    • Pus cells.
  17. Diabetes commonly presents with:
    • Weight loss and polyuria (passing a lot of urine frequently).
    • Abdominal pain.
    • A sweet taste in the mouth.
    • Red urine.
  18. Convulsions can be stopped by:
    • Intramuscular phenytoin.
    • Rectal diazepam.
    • Giving oxygen.
    • Holding the child down.
  19. Febrile convulsions:
    • Are usually seen in children older than 5 years.
    • Are commonly fatal.
    • Should be treated by cooling the child.
    • Can be prevented with oral anticonvulsants.
  20. A common malignancy in children is:
    • Liver cancer.
    • Leukaemia.
    • Melanoma.
    • Bone cancer.