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Test 5: Diarrhoea

  1. Diarrhoea is diagnosed when:
    • Stools are passed every day.
    • At least three loose and watery stools are passed in a day.
    • The stools smell offensive.
    • The stools contain blood.
  2. What commonly causes diarrhoea?
    • Round worms.
    • Eating too much.
    • Thrush.
    • Rota virus.
  3. Diarrhoea is regarded as persistent when the stools are still loose after:
    • 48 hours.
    • 5 days.
    • 2 weeks.
    • 1 month.
  4. Diarrhoea is common in children:
    • With malnutrition.
    • Who are obese and eat too much.
    • Who are breastfed.
    • Who are taking an iron supplement.
  5. What is dysentery?
    • Loose stools containing blood and mucus.
    • Loose stools containing blood only.
    • Loose stools containing mucus only.
    • Very watery stools.
  6. Typhoid is caused by:
    • Rota virus.
    • Shigella.
    • Salmonella.
    • E. coli.
  7. What is a common sign of dehydration?
    • A slow heart rate (bradycardia).
    • Slow, regular breathing.
    • A full fontanelle.
    • Decreased skin turgor.
  8. Children with ‘some’ dehydration:
    • Are usually lethargic and refuse to drink fluids.
    • Are restless and irritable.
    • Have severely decreased skin turgor.
    • Have lost more than 10 kg body weight.
  9. A normal capillary filling time is:
    • Less than 1 second.
    • Less than 3 seconds.
    • Less than 10 seconds.
    • Less than 1 minute.
  10. What sign suggests that the diarrhoea may have a surgical cause?
    • Marked abdominal distension.
    • Cramping abdominal pains.
    • Mucus in the stool.
    • Pyrexia (fever).
  11. When a child has diarrhoea:
    • Breastfeeding should be continued.
    • All milk feeds should be stopped as they make diarrhoea worse.
    • No solids should be given.
    • The child should only be given water or weak tea.
  12. What is the management of a child with acute diarrhoea?
    • Start oral rehydration solution.
    • Start antibiotics.
    • Give an antidiarrhoeal agent such as codeine.
    • Give an antiemetic to stop vomiting.
  13. Children with mild diarrhoea and ‘no visible’ dehydration:
    • Should all be taken to a clinic for management.
    • Can be managed at home.
    • Should be admitted to hospital as the diarrhoea may become worse.
    • Must be seen by a doctor.
  14. How should a sugar and salt solution be made?
    • Add one teaspoon of salt and one teaspoon of sugar to 1 litre of water.
    • Add 4 teaspoons of sugar and a pinch of salt to 1 litre of water.
    • Add 8 teaspoons of sugar and half a teaspoon of salt to 1 litre of water.
    • Add 10 teaspoons of sugar and 1 teaspoon of salt to 1 litre of water.
  15. How should oral rehydration solution given?
    • Give a cup full after every stool.
    • Give a cup full after each vomit.
    • Give frequent, small amounts.
    • Give as much as the child asks for every 2 hours.
  16. What is the treatment of diarrhoea with severe dehydration?
    • Rush the child to hospital so that an intravenous infusion can be started.
    • Start a nasogastric infusion if an intra­venous infusion cannot be started immediately.
    • Give the child as much oral rehydration fluid as possible.
    • Start intravenous antibiotics.
  17. Why do children commonly get diarrhoea?
    • Because infants are fed pasteurised cow’s milk.
    • Because chlorinated tap water is used to make up formula feeds.
    • Because feeding bottles are not cleaned properly.
    • Because solid foods are introduced too soon.
  18. How can the risk of diarrhoea be reduced, especially in poor homes?
    • Add sugar to the feeds.
    • Use a cup rather than a bottle to give feeds.
    • Give formula feeds rather than breastmilk.
    • Reduce the amount of milk powder when mixing formula feeds.
  19. How can a safe water supply be obtained?
    • By allowing the water to stand for an hour before using it.
    • By adding bleach or boiling the water.
    • By using river rather than dam water.
    • By cooling the water in a fridge.
  20. When building a simple pit toilet:
    • It is best to build the pit toilet close to the house.
    • The pit must not be dug too deep.
    • The pit should be as wide as possible.
    • Throwing in lime, ash or soil will help to control flies.