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Test 7: Lower respiratory tract conditions

  1. What is a sign of breathing difficulty?
    • Cough.
    • Indrawing of the lower chest wall.
    • Fever.
    • Sore throat.
  2. What is a sign of respiratory distress?
    • Central cyanosis.
    • Shortness of breath.
    • Indrawing of the lower chest wall.
    • Inspiratory stridor when crying.
  3. What is stridor?
    • A crowing sound usually made during inspiration.
    • A whistling sound made only during expiration.
    • A sound which can only be heard with a stethoscope.
    • A severe cough with yellow-green sputum.
  4. A child of 2 years is breathing too fast when the respiratory rate per minute is:
    • Above 20.
    • Above 30.
    • Above 40.
    • Above 50.
  5. Oxygen should be given when the oxygen saturation is less than:
    • 100%.
    • 98%.
    • 95%.
    • 90%.
  6. What is a sign of viral croup?
    • Wheezing.
    • A barking cough.
    • A rash.
    • A red throat.
  7. What is the management of severe viral croup?
    • A short acting bronchodilator.
    • A broad spectrum antibiotic.
    • A headbox with cold mist.
    • Nebulised adrenaline.
  8. Acute bronchiolitis is usually caused by:
    • Respiratory syncytial virus.
    • Parainfluenza virus.
    • Measles virus.
    • Herpes virus.
  9. Severe bronchiolitis is best managed with:
    • Steroids.
    • Penicillin.
    • Oxygen.
    • Physiotherapy.
  10. What is the most important sign of pneumonia?
    • Wheezing.
    • Fast breathing.
    • A productive cough.
    • Mild or no fever.
  11. Children with HIV infection are at high risk of:
    • Asthma.
    • Viral croup.
    • Bronchiolitis.
    • Pneumonia.
  12. A major cause of death in children in South Africa today is:
    • Bronchitis.
    • Pneumonia.
    • Diphtheria.
    • Whooping cough.
  13. All children with pneumonia should:
    • Have a chest X-ray.
    • Be given an antibiotic.
    • Be admitted urgently to hospital for oxygen.
    • Receive a nebulised bronchodilator.
  14. What is an important symptom of asthma?
    • Coughing, especially at night.
    • Wheezing during inspiration.
    • Chest pain.
    • Night sweats.
  15. Wheezing should make you think of:
    • Croup.
    • Bronchitis.
    • Asthma.
    • Pneumonia.
  16. What is found in asthma?
    • Bronchospasm.
    • A foreign body.
    • Swelling of the larynx.
    • Bacterial infection of the alveoli.
  17. Most children with asthma:
    • Present under the age of 6 months.
    • Have a family history of allergy.
    • Have only 1 attack.
    • Need lung function tests to make the diagnosis.
  18. Children with an acute asthma attack should be treated with:
    • Rectal theophylline.
    • Subcutaneous adrenaline.
    • A long acting oral bronchodilator.
    • A short acting inhaled or nebulised bronchodilator.
  19. Bronchodilators are best given:
    • Via a plastic cup held over the child’s face.
    • Into a headbox or oxygen tent.
    • With a spacer.
    • Intravenously.
  20. Persistent asthma responds well to:
    • Steroids.
    • Antibiotics.
    • Subcutaneous adrenaline.
    • Intravenous theophylline.