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Test 8: Tuberculosis

  1. How is tuberculosis commonly spread to children?
    • By urine or stool contaminated drinking water.
    • By droplet spread caused by coughing, sneezing and talking.
    • By direct hand to hand contact.
    • From mother to infant at birth.
  2. Most children infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis:
    • Do not develop tuberculosis.
    • Get pulmonary tuberculosis.
    • Develop abdominal tuberculosis.
    • Die of tuberculosis.
  3. Which children are at greatest risk of getting tuberculosis?
    • Children over the age of 5 years.
    • Children with asthma.
    • Children with a weak immune system.
    • Children who are obese.
  4. Primary tuberculosis of the lung:
    • Is common.
    • Is seen only in adults.
    • Is highly infectious.
    • Usually causes a high fever and cough.
  5. An important complication of primary tuberculosis in young children is:
    • Tuberculous meningitis.
    • Tuberculosis of the kidney.
    • ‘Cavity’ or ‘open’ tuberculosis of the lung.
    • Tuberculous arthritis (multiple joints infected).
  6. Pulmonary tuberculosis in children usually presents with:
    • Coughing up yellow sputum.
    • Coughing up blood (haemoptysis).
    • A persistent cough lasting 3 weeks or more.
    • Cyanosis and indrawing of the lower chest wall.
  7. What is usually needed to confirm a clinical diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis?
    • A blood culture.
    • A chest X-ray.
    • An MRI scan of the lungs.
    • A full blood count.
  8. When doing a Mantoux test, the tuberculin should be injected:
    • Into the skin (intradermal).
    • Under the skin (subcutaneously).
    • With a Heaf gun.
    • With a Tine device.
  9. The result of a Mantoux test strongly suggests tuberculosis:
    • When the induration is less than 5 mm.
    • When the induration is 5 to 9 mm.
    • When the induration is 10 mm or more.
    • Only when ulceration occurs.
  10. When may the Mantoux test be negative in a child with tuberculosis?
    • With severe malnutrition.
    • After chickenpox.
    • In a well child who is HIV positive.
    • During the first month of anti-TB treatment.
  11. How is a sample collected to identify tuberculous bacilli in children?
    • By taking a nasal swab.
    • By examining coughed up sputum.
    • By obtaining an early morning gastric aspirate.
    • By getting the child to spit out saliva.
  12. What is common in children with miliary tuberculosis?
    • Wheezing or stridor.
    • Headache, vomiting and neck stiffness.
    • Enlarged liver and spleen.
    • Jaundice and a rash.
  13. Tuberculous lymph nodes are usually:
    • Very tender.
    • Soft (full of pus).
    • In the axilla (armpit) and inguinal region (groin) only.
    • Non tender and matted (stuck together).
  14. BCG gives good protection against:
    • Primary TB infection.
    • Miliary tuberculosis in well nourished children.
    • Pulmonary tuberculosis.
    • Tuberculous meningitis in under­nourished children.
  15. Usually tuberculosis is treated with:
    • A single drug.
    • 2 drugs.
    • 3 drugs.
    • 4 drugs.
  16. Short course anti-TB treatment is usually given for:
    • A month.
    • 3 months.
    • 6 months.
    • 1 year.
  17. What is the common cause for failure of anti-TB treatment in children?
    • Stopping the medication too soon.
    • Only taking the medication for 5 days a week.
    • Side effects.
    • AIDS.
  18. With the DOTS strategy:
    • Patients do not have to attend a TB clinic while on treatment.
    • Patients are taught to be responsible for their own treatment.
    • Each patient has a treatment supporter.
    • The patient has to stay in hospital for the first 2 months of treatment.
  19. The newborn infants of women with untreated tuberculosis:
    • Should receive prophylactic INH.
    • Must not breastfeed.
    • Should receive BCG after birth.
    • Must be isolated from their mother.
  20. Is tuberculosis a notifiable disease?
    • No.
    • Only if the patients also has AIDS.
    • Only if the patient has multidrug resistant TB.
    • Yes.