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Test 9: HIV infection

  1. What is AIDS?
    • A virus, also known as HIV.
    • A disease caused by poverty and malnutrition.
    • An advanced stage of HIV infection.
    • The cause of AIDS is still unknown.
  2. How may children become infected with HIV?
    • It commonly crosses the placenta during pregnancy but not during labour and delivery.
    • Rarely it may infect the infant during labour and delivery.
    • Children may be infected when bitten by ticks, fleas or mosquitoes.
    • The infant may be infected with HIV during pregnancy, labour or delivery.
  3. What is the risk of mother-to-child transmission if the woman is infected with HIV?
    • 5–10%.
    • 10–15%.
    • 20–35%.
    • 40–50%.
  4. Which form of infant feeding has the highest risk of HIV infection?
    • Exclusive formula feeding.
    • Exclusive breastfeeding.
    • Mixed breastfeeding.
    • The risk is the same with all three forms of infant feeding.
  5. Which test can confirm HIV infection in a child under 18 months?
    • The ELISA test.
    • The rapid test.
    • The VDRL test.
    • The PCR test.
  6. What is a sign of stage 2 HIV infection?
    • Enlarged parotid glands.
    • Generalised, persistent lymphadenopathy only.
    • Persistent diarrhoea lasting more than 14 days.
    • Oesophageal candidiasis.
  7. What form of pneumonia would suggest that the child has stage 4 HIV infection?
    • Viral.
    • Bacterial.
    • Pneumocystis.
    • Tuberculous.
  8. The normal CD4 percentage in healthy children is:
    • 25% or above.
    • 20–25%.
    • 15–19%.
    • Below 15%.
  9. What drug or drugs are used for prophylactic treatment to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV?
    • Co-trimoxazole.
    • AZT and nevirapine.
    • Kaletra.
    • INH and rifampicin.
  10. All HIV positive children should receive:
    • Vitamin A.
    • Vitamin C.
    • Prophylactic INH.
    • Anti-HIV immunoglobulin.
  11. What is an advantage of diagnosing HIV infection early in an infant?
    • The infection can be cured with early antiretroviral treatment.
    • The infant must not receive routine immunisations.
    • Prophylactic co-trimoxazole can be started.
    • Money can be saved by not admitting the child to hospital when ill.
  12. What is the prognosis of children infected with HIV if they do not receive antiretroviral treatment?
    • They will all die before 1 year.
    • They will all die before 2 years.
    • They will all die before 5 years.
    • Some may live as long as 10 years.
  13. What factor will determine how fast the HIV infection will progress?
    • The age of the mother.
    • The nutritional state of the child.
    • Whether the child is a boy or a girl.
    • The total white cell count.
  14. What infection is not seen in children who are HIV negative?
    • Impetigo.
    • Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP).
    • Molluscum.
    • Oral herpes.
  15. What form of tuberculosis is most common in children with HIV infection?
    • Pulmonary tuberculosis.
    • Miliary tuberculosis.
    • Tuberculous meningitis.
    • Local tuberculosis of the lymph nodes.
  16. What skin condition is common in children with HIV infection?
    • Atopic eczema.
    • Acne.
    • Pruritic papular urticaria (itchy bump disease).
    • Erythema toxicum.
  17. First line antiretroviral treatment of children includes:
    • AZT.
    • 3TC.
    • DDI.
    • ABC.
  18. How many drugs are usually used when giving antiretroviral treatment?
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  19. What is important in the follow up care of HIV exposed infants?
    • Giving HIV vaccine.
    • Monitoring growth carefully at each clinic visit.
    • Starting co-trimoxazole prophylaxis when the child reaches 12 months.
    • Only seeing the child at a special HIV clinic.
  20. What is palliative care?
    • Care given to children who are dying.
    • Care given to prevent HIV infection.
    • Care given to the parents of children ill with HIV.
    • Care given to all patients with an incurable disease.