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Test 1: Introduction to childhood HIV infection

  1. HIV is a:
    • Fungus
    • Spirochaete
    • Bacterium
    • Virus
  2. HIV infection in children usually presents with:
    • Other bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic infections
    • Cancer
    • Convulsions
    • Blood in the stool
  3. How does HIV cause disease?
    • It destroys red cells.
    • It damages the immune system.
    • It damages the liver.
    • It lowers the level of antibodies.
  4. How is HIV usually transmitted between adults in southern Africa?
    • By sexual intercourse
    • By droplet spread (coughing or sneezing)
    • By insect bites
    • By sharing needles when abusing drugs
  5. Older children can be infected with HIV after:
    • Sharing cups and plates
    • Sitting on contaminated toilet seats
    • Social kissing
    • Sexual abuse
  6. When do most children with HIV infection become ill?
    • They are already ill at birth.
    • Most become ill by one month.
    • Most become ill by one year.
    • Most remain well until they are five years old.
  7. How common is HIV infection in pregnant women in South Africa?
    • Rare (about 5%)
    • Uncommon (about 15%)
    • Common (about 30%)
    • Very common (about 60%)
  8. How many children have HIV infection in South Africa?
    • About 5 000
    • About 50 000
    • About 150 000
    • About 460 000
  9. When is HIV most commonly spread from mother to child?
    • During pregnancy
    • During labour and vaginal delivery
    • During exclusive breastfeeding
    • While holding, kissing and cuddling the infant
  10. What form of feeding carries the greatest risk of HIV infection for an infant?
    • Exclusive breastfeeding
    • Mixed breastfeeding (breast plus formula milk)
    • Formula feeding alone
    • Feeding choice does not affect the risk of HIV transmission.
  11. Without antiretroviral prophylaxis, what is the overall risk of HIV infection to an infant born vaginally to an HIV-positive woman who decides not to breastfeed her child?
    • 5%
    • 15%
    • 20%
    • 35%
  12. How can the risk of HIV transmission to the infant be reduced?
    • Rupture the membranes early to speed up labour.
    • Suction the infant’s mouth well after delivery.
    • Avoid episiotomies unless obstetrically indicated.
    • Avoid elective Caesarean sections.
  13. Prophylactic antiretroviral drugs given to the mother are most effective if:
    • They are used during pregnancy only.
    • They are used during labour only.
    • They are used during pregnancy and labour.
    • They are used after delivery only.
  14. For infants who are exclusively formula-fed, prophylactic antiretroviral drugs can reduce the risk of perinatal HIV transmission to as low as:
    • 5%
    • 10%
    • 15%
    • 20%
  15. Which regimen of antiretroviral prophylaxis is most effective in reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV?
    • Nevirapine alone
    • Nevirapine and AZT
    • 3TC alone
    • Lopinavir/ritonavir alone
  16. What factors may increase the risk of HIV transmission in breast milk?
    • Frequent feeding
    • Engorgement
    • Mastitis
    • Feeding expressed breast milk
  17. After counselling, who should choose what feeding method is best for a mother?
    • The doctor
    • The nurse
    • The counsellor
    • The mother
  18. How can healthcare workers reduce their own risk of being infected with HIV?
    • Do not kiss children.
    • Wear gloves when feeding children.
    • Adopt universal precautions.
    • Always resheath needles after use.
  19. What is the correct procedure after a needle-stick injury?
    • Start antiretroviral prophylaxis as soon as possible.
    • Wait for the HIV screening result on the patient before starting antiretroviral prophylaxis.
    • Wait for your own HIV screening result before starting antiretroviral prophylaxis.
    • Antiretroviral prophylaxis is only needed if the needle-stick injury is deep.
  20. Antiretroviral prophylaxis after a needle-stick injury or sexual abuse should be given for:
    • 48 hours
    • 7 days
    • 10 days
    • 28 days