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Test 3: Management of children with HIV infection

  1. Where should most children with HIV infection be managed?
    • In a community-based primary care clinic
    • In a large regional hospital
    • In a teaching hospital
    • In a specialised paediatric HIV clinic
  2. What is family centred care?
    • The ill child should be visited at home by a nurse rather than taking the child to a clinic.
    • The parents, rather than healthcare workers, should provide medical care.
    • The care of the family is more important than the care of the child.
    • Children should be seen as a member of the family and not simply as an individual.
  3. All HIV-exposed infants:
    • Do not need special care and follow up.
    • Only need to be seen at six months to assess their HIV status.
    • Should be carefully assessed at six weeks of age.
    • Should be started on antiretroviral treatment.
  4. What immunisations should not be given to a child with symptomatic HIV infection?
    • BCG
    • Influenza vaccine
    • Tetanus vaccine
    • Haemophilus influenza vaccine
  5. Primary prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole reduces the risk of which infection?
    • Tuberculosis
    • HIV
    • Pneumocystis jiroveci
    • Rota virus
  6. When should co-trimoxazole prophylaxis be started in an HIV-exposed infant?
    • At birth
    • At six weeks
    • At nine months
    • At one year
  7. What important side effect may occur when children are given co-trimoxazole prophylaxis?
    • Shortness of breath
    • Jaundice
    • Severe diarrhoea
    • Severe skin rash
  8. Why is good nutrition important in HIV-exposed infants?
    • It prevents them becoming HIV infected.
    • With good nutrition co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is not necessary.
    • It helps to maintain the normal functioning of the immune system.
    • It prevents side effects of antiretroviral drugs.
  9. The nutritional state should be routinely monitored by:
    • Measuring the vitamin A blood concentration every three months.
    • Screening the urine for proteinuria every month.
    • Taking a dietary history at every clinic visit.
    • Measuring and plotting weight on the Road-to-Health card.
  10. Nutrition can be improved by giving the child:
    • Potato chips every day to increase the energy input.
    • Cool drinks as they are rich in vitamin C.
    • Beans, lentils or milk which are high in protein.
    • Chocolate as it is high in fat.
  11. Which vitamin supplement is particularly important for children with HIV infection?
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin K
  12. Which mineral supplement reduces the severity of diarrhoea?
    • Iron
    • Copper
    • Zinc
    • Lead
  13. Which drug can be used for regular deworming?
    • Co-trimoxazole
    • Mebendazole
    • Fluconazole
    • Metronidazole
  14. Neurodevelopment should be monitored by:
    • Weighing the child regularly
    • Measuring head circumference regularly
    • Assessing developmental milestones regularly
    • Testing hearing regularly
  15. HIV-infected children over a year of age who are well should be clinically assessed:
    • Every month
    • Every three months
    • Every six months
    • Only if they are unwell
  16. Which test is used to monitor the immune system in HIV-infected children?
    • The white cell count
    • The clinical stage
    • The weight
    • The CD4 percentage or count
  17. What is the immunological indication to start antiretroviral treatment in children below 5 years?
    • CD4 percentage below 10%
    • CD4 percentage below 15%
    • All children below 5 years of age should be started on treatment.
    • Children under 12 months of age are too young for treatment.
  18. Which children are adolescents?
    • All teenagers
    • All children between puberty and 20 years
    • Children between 14 and 19 years
    • Children between 10 and 19 years
  19. In South Africa many adolescents have become infected with HIV:
    • At birth
    • Due to HIV-contaminated needles in hospital
    • During immunisation
    • When donating blood
  20. How can adolescents best protect themselves from becoming infected with HIV?
    • Avoid homosexual contact
    • Delay sexual debut (first intercourse)
    • Use oral contraception
    • Use co-trimoxazole prophylaxis