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Test 4: Antiretroviral drugs

  1. How does antiretroviral treatment work?
    • The drugs kill CD4 cells.
    • The drugs kill the organisms which cause opportunistic infections.
    • The drugs prevent an inflammatory reaction to HIV.
    • The drugs prevent HIV multiplying in CD4 cells.
  2. Which group of drugs prevents CD4 cells from releasing HIV?
    • ‘Nucs’
    • ‘Non-nucs’
    • ‘PIs’
    • Steroids (prednisone)
  3. Which is a common example of a ‘nuc’?
    • AZT
    • Nevirapine
    • Lopinavir/ritonavir
    • Fluconazole
  4. What is lamivudine commonly known as?
    • AZT
    • 3TC
    • d4T
    • ABC
  5. Aluvia is a trade name for:
    • Ritonavir
    • Tenofovir
    • A combination of lopinavir and ritonavir
    • A combination of nelfinavir and ritonavir
  6. Can antiretroviral treatment cure children who are infected with HIV?
    • Yes.
    • Only if a combination of three or more drugs are used.
    • Only if treatment is given before the child presents with symptoms and signs of HIV infection.
    • No.
  7. A standard regimen of antiretroviral drugs is:
    • Safer, simpler and cheaper
    • Unfortunately more expensive than an individualised approach
    • Not recommended in private practice as it is less effective
    • Complicated with more side effects
  8. What is the standard first-line combination used in children younger than three years in South Africa?
    • ABC, 3TC and efavirenz
    • ABC, 3TC and lopinavir/ritonavir
    • d4T, 3TC and ddI
    • AZT, ddI and efavirenz
  9. What is the standard first-line combination used in children older than three years in South Africa?
    • ABC, 3TC and efavirenz
    • AZT, ddI and lopinavir/ritonavir
    • AZT, ddI and nevirapine
    • ABC, 3TC and lopinavir/ritonavir
  10. How should antiretroviral drugs be taken?
    • It does not matter if one or two doses are missed a week.
    • It is important to take the drugs at the same time every day.
    • The three different drugs should not be taken at the same time.
    • It is best to take a small dose in the morning and a big dose at night.
  11. How should doses of antiretroviral drugs be calculated for young children?
    • The dose is usually the same as for adults.
    • The dose is determined by the child’s age.
    • The dose is determined by the severity of the illness.
    • The dose is determined by the child’s weight.
  12. An important side effect of AZT is:
    • An itchy skin rash
    • Anaemia
    • Peripheral neuropathy
    • Hepatitis
  13. When should ddI be taken?
    • With meals
    • Just before meals
    • Just after meals
    • Not with meals
  14. Efavirenz is taken:
    • Once a day
    • Twice a day
    • Three times a day
    • Four times a day
  15. Which antiretroviral drug can be kept at room temperature?
    • AZT suspension only
    • Nevirapine tablets only
    • Most antiretroviral drugs
    • Efavirenz capsules only
  16. Nevirapine may cause:
    • Lactic acidosis
    • A severe skin rash
    • Lipodystrophy
    • Pancreatitis
  17. Peripheral neuropathy usually presents as:
    • Difficulty with speech
    • Severe headaches
    • Pain or numbness in the feet
    • Blindness
  18. What are important signs of lactic acidosis?
    • Nausea and vomiting within weeks of starting antiretroviral treatment
    • Weight loss and abdominal pain months after starting antiretroviral treatment
    • Jaundice and loss of appetite
    • Pallor and tiredness due to anaemia
  19. What are features of lipodystrophy?
    • Fat arms and legs
    • Fat cheeks
    • Fat over the back of the neck
    • Fat buttocks
  20. If severe side effects occur:
    • All antiretroviral drugs must be stopped.
    • Only the drug probably causing the side effect should be stopped.
    • Only the morning dose should be stopped.
    • Only the evening dose should be stopped.