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Test 1: Introduction to childhood tuberculosis

Please choose the one most correct answer to each question or statement.

  1. Tuberculosis is:
    • An acute infection
    • A chronic infection
    • A malignancy
    • Always fatal
  2. Tuberculosis is caused by a:
    • Virus
    • Fungus
    • Bacterium
    • Parasite
  3. How is tuberculosis spread?
    • By airborne droplets
    • By drinking unclean water
    • By infected mosquitoes
    • By sharing dirty needles
  4. The source of TB infection is usually:
    • Another child with undiagnosed tuberculosis
    • An adult with untreated pulmonary tuberculosis
    • A mother with TB infection of her breast
    • A pet in the household with tuberculosis
  5. Which children are at greatest risk of TB infection?
    • Newborn infants
    • Children under five years of age
    • Children aged seven to ten years
    • Adolescents
  6. The risk of TB infection is highest in:
    • Regions with a high rainfall
    • Regions that have cold winters
    • Homes with poor sanitation and no clean water
    • Overcrowded and poorly ventilated homes
  7. Most children with TB infection:
    • Remain clinically well
    • Develop a mild illness
    • Become seriously ill
    • Die
  8. Which of the following children commonly have a weak immune system?
    • Children with chickenpox
    • Children who are obese
    • Children with HIV infection
    • Children with influenza
  9. How many South Africans have had TB infection at some time in their lives?
    • Less than 10%
    • About 25%
    • About 50%
    • More than 75%
  10. The risk of TB infection progressing to tuberculosis in older children is:
    • Less than 5%
    • 10%
    • 50%
    • 75%
  11. What is the incidence of tuberculosis in South Africa?
    • Less than 50 per 100 000 people
    • About 100 per 100 000 people
    • About 500 per 100 000 people
    • About 1000 per 100 000 people
  12. Primary TB infection usually occurs in:
    • The lung
    • The gut
    • The cervical lymph nodes
    • The tonsils
  13. The commonest form of tuberculosis in children is:
    • Abdominal tuberculosis
    • Miliary tuberculosis
    • Pulmonary tuberculosis
    • Tuberculous meningitis
  14. Enlarged hilar lymph nodes commonly cause:
    • A lump in the neck
    • Chest pain
    • Coughing blood-stained sputum
    • Stridor
  15. An enlarged hilar lymph node may rupture into a bronchus causing:
    • Tuberculous bronchopneumonia
    • Disseminated tuberculosis
    • Severe bleeding
    • Sudden death
  16. Pulmonary tuberculosis with cavities is usually seen in:
    • Young infants
    • Children younger than five years of age
    • Children of school going age
    • Adolescents
  17. TB infection of the hilar nodes is most likely to spread via the lymphatics to:
    • The axillary nodes in the arm pit
    • The inguinal nodes in the groin
    • The cervical nodes in the neck
    • The abdominal nodes
  18. A common site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in children is:
    • The meninges
    • The tonsils
    • The kidneys
    • The heart
  19. Abdominal tuberculosis commonly affects:
    • The stomach
    • The small bowel and pancreas
    • The large bowel and appendix
    • The lymph nodes, liver and spleen
  20. Disseminated tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis that:
    • Spreads throughout the community
    • Spreads to many organs of the body
    • Is common at all ages
    • Spreads only in the lungs