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Test 1: Introduction to congential disorders

  1. How high is the prevalence of congential disorders in developing countries?
    • 10/1000 live births.
    • 30/1000 live births.
    • 80/1000 live births.
    • 120/1000 live births.
  2. How many chromosomes are found in the cells of the human body?
    • 22
    • 23
    • 44
    • 46
  3. Females have:
    • One X chromosome.
    • One Y chromosome.
    • Two X chromosomes.
    • No X chromosomes.
  4. Ova and sperms are also called sex cells or:
    • Zygotes.
    • Embryos.
    • Gametes.
    • Genes.
  5. What is trisomy?
    • An extra chromosome.
    • An extra three chromosomes.
    • A missing chromosome.
    • An extra gene.
  6. Trisomy is usually due to:
    • Translocation.
    • Non-disjunction.
    • Deletion.
    • Mosaicism.
  7. What is an example of monosomy?
    • Down syndrome.
    • Edward syndrome.
    • Patau syndrome.
    • Turner syndrome.
  8. What is a gene?
    • A small package of DNA.
    • A group of chromosomes.
    • A fertilised egg.
    • A pair of chromosomes.
  9. What are alleles?
    • A pair of similar genes.
    • Single chromosomes.
    • A substance that damages a fetus.
    • A defect in a single gene.
  10. What is a mutation?
    • A change in the structure of a gene.
    • An increased number of genes.
    • A decreased number of genes.
    • It has nothing to do with genes.
  11. What is the chance of inheriting a dominant gene present in one parent?
    • There is a 25% chance of inheriting the gene.
    • There is a 50% chance of inheriting the gene.
    • Only females pass on the gene.
    • Only males pass on the gene.
  12. What is a recessive gene?
    • A ‘stronger’ gene.
    • A ‘weaker’ gene.
    • A female gene.
    • Always an abnormal gene.
  13. A person who has a dominant and a recessive gene for a particular physical feature or function is called:
    • A female.
    • Homozygous.
    • Heterozygous.
    • A twin.
  14. If both parents are carriers of a recessive gene, the chance of their infant inheriting both recessive genes is:
    • 1:1 (i.e. 100%).
    • 1:2 (i.e. 50%).
    • 1:4 (i.e. 25%).
    • 1:10 (i.e. 10%).
  15. Name the type of inheritance if a recessive gene is carried by females and only passed on to their male infants:
    • Dominant inheritance.
    • Recessive inheritance.
    • Y-linked inheritance.
    • X-linked inheritance.
  16. What clinical disorder is caused by a single gene defect?
    • Cystic fibrosis.
    • Down syndrome.
    • Fetal alcohol syndrome.
    • Club feet.
  17. Which of the following conditions are caused by a multifactorial inheritance?
    • Neurofibromatosis.
    • Neural tube defect.
    • Thalassaemia.
    • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD).
  18. What is a teratogen?
    • An abnormal chromosome.
    • An abnormal gene.
    • Something that damages the developing organism.
    • Something that damages a gene.
  19. When do teratogens have the most effect?
    • The pre-implantation phase.
    • The embryonic phase.
    • The fetal phase.
    • After birth.
  20. Which of the following is a teratogen?
    • The X-chromosome.
    • A recessive gene.
    • A translocation.
    • Rubella virus.