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Test 2: Care, prevention and counselling

  1. Which congential disorder is common in South Africa?
    • Oculocutaneous albinism.
    • Cystic fibrosis.
    • Marfan syndrome.
    • Sickle cell anaemia.
  2. Where can people with congential disorders be offered the best possible care?
    • Only in industrialised countries.
    • Only in large towns and cities.
    • Only in hospitals with a genetic centre.
    • The best possible care in the situation should always be offered.
  3. What is a three generation family tree?
    • A method of providing care to three generations of a family with birth defects.
    • A pictured representation of normal, carrier and abnormal people in three generations of a family.
    • A way of predicting whether grandchildren will be male or female.
    • The source of a new drug to treat haemophilia.
  4. Can a medical genetic diagnosis always be made?
    • Yes, if the person is fully examined and all the tests are done.
    • Only if the DNA screening test is done.
    • In about 40% of cases.
    • Usually not (only in about 10% of cases).
  5. In the treatment of congential disorders:
    • Neurodevelopmental therapy does not help.
    • Only surgical treatment is useful.
    • Medical treatment is often helpful.
    • Genetic counselling is usually all that is needed.
  6. Basic reproductive health approaches to prevent congential disorders include:
    • Giving all nurses a course in genetic counselling.
    • Teaching doctors to recognise common birth defects.
    • Family planning.
    • Screening all pregnant women for HIV/AIDS.
  7. Periconceptional care to prevent congential disorders includes:
    • Improving the diet of women.
    • Monitoring the fetus in labour.
    • Antenatal ultrasound screening for all pregnant women.
    • Giving vitamin K to all newborn infants.
  8. What antenatal infections can cause congential disorders?
    • The common cold.
    • Rubella (German measles).
    • Hepatitis A or B.
    • Trichomonas vaginal infection.
  9. What is medical genetic screening?
    • Asking the age of women to find teenage mothers as they are at an increased risk for delivering infants with cogential disorders.
    • Asking the age of the father (husband or partner).
    • Applying a question or test to a population to identify individuals at increased risk for cogential disorders.
    • Taking chest X-rays of all pregnant mothers to look for fetuses with cogential disorders.
  10. When is the best time to do genetic screening tests for cogential disorders?
    • Preconception (before pregnancy).
    • Only during the first trimester of pregnancy.
    • Only after 20 weeks of gestation.
    • Only once the infant is born (postnatal).
  11. What tests help to screen for congential disorders?
    • Identifying the mother’s ABO blood group.
    • An ultrasound examination at 18 weeks of gestation.
    • Measuring the mother’s thyroid function at booking for antenatal care.
    • Measuring all infants’ serum bilirubin concentration at birth.
  12. Why is medical genetic screening for congential disorders not available to everyone in a developing country (e.g. South Africa)?
    • Because birth defects are rare.
    • Because most birth defects cannot be prevented.
    • Because it is too expensive and requires functioning health systems.
    • Because it is unethical.
  13. What choice should a woman have if genetic screening indicates that she is at an increased risk for a congential disorder?
    • She should have no choice.
    • She should accept the advice of the doctor.
    • She must do what the genetic counsellor decides.
    • She can choose to have prenatal diagnosis.
  14. What is active listening?
    • Interrupting while the person is talking.
    • Asking the person to speak loudly.
    • Asking one or two colleagues to help with counselling.
    • Paying attention to the person’s words, behaviour and emotional responses.
  15. What can block effective communication?
    • Saying what you mean.
    • Being judgemental.
    • Listening more than talking.
    • Repeating important information.
  16. What is the purpose of genetic counselling?
    • Giving good advice.
    • Teaching people how to accept bad news.
    • Enabling people to make the best decisions and come to terms with their situation.
    • Telling people what is best for them.
  17. What are the characteristics of a good genetic counsellor?
    • Be a good communicator.
    • Speak loudly and be firm.
    • Have the knowledge to answer all the person’s questions.
    • Be the manager of the genetic clinic or hospital out-patient department.
  18. Who should provide genetic counselling?
    • A nurse or doctor who has been trained in genetic counselling.
    • Doctors but not nurses.
    • Only medical geneticists.
    • Any midwife who works in an antenatal clinic.
  19. The first response to loss is usually:
    • Depression.
    • Acceptance.
    • Denial.
    • Anger and bargaining.
  20. How should a genetic counsellor break bad news?
    • Tell the person when there are a lot of other people present.
    • Do not worry about the person’s knowledge and understanding of the situation.
    • Give all the information at one time.
    • Use simple language.