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Test 5: Fetal alcohol syndrome

  1. Fetal alcohol syndrome can be diagnosed by:
    • Doing an abdominal X-ray during pregnancy.
    • Doing a breathalyser test on the mother.
    • Performing a blood test on the mother in labour.
    • Clinical examination of the infant after birth.
  2. Fetal alcohol syndrome is associated with:
    • Drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
    • Binge drinking before pregnancy.
    • Drinking alcohol during labour.
    • Giving alcohol to a young child.
  3. Fetal alcohol syndrome is:
    • An inherited condition.
    • Caused by a chromosomal defect in the fetus.
    • Caused by a teratogen.
    • Caused by a lack of folic acid in a poor diet.
  4. How common is fetal alcohol syndrome in some communities in South Africa?
    • Very common, i.e. 500/1000 (50%) pregnancies.
    • Common, i.e. 50/1000 (5%) pregnancies.
    • Not common, i.e. 5/1000 (0.5%) pregnancies.
    • Rare, i.e. 1/1000 (0.1%) pregnancies.
  5. How many alcoholic drinks are usually needed to damage the fetus?
    • Only one per day.
    • At least three per day.
    • At least five per day.
    • At least ten per day.
  6. One drink (15 ml alcohol) is equal to:
    • A quart of beer (750 ml).
    • Half a tot of spirits (e.g. brandy).
    • A glass of wine (150 ml).
    • Two glasses of wine.
  7. Which type of alcoholic drink is most likely to cause fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • Beer
    • Wine.
    • Spirits.
    • All are equally dangerous.
  8. Alcohol is most dangerous to the fetus if it is drunk:
    • In the week before conception.
    • In the first trimester.
    • In the second half of pregnancy.
    • In the week before delivery.
  9. The following factor increases the risk of a high blood alcohol concentration:
    • A low maternal weight.
    • Drinking the alcohol slowly over a long time.
    • Eating a meal with the drink.
    • Inheriting an enzyme that breaks down alcohol fast.
  10. When is it easiest to recognise a child with fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • During pregnancy.
    • At birth.
    • Between three and 10 years.
    • After 10 years.
  11. Common signs of fetal alcohol syndrome are:
    • Large eyes.
    • A large head.
    • Short palpebral fissures.
    • A short upper lip.
  12. What is the typical pattern of fetal growth in fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • Weight, length and head circumference are all reduced.
    • Only weight is reduced (i.e. wasted).
    • Head circumference is increased while weight and length are reduced.
    • Weight, length and head circumference are all increased.
  13. What is the average intelligence (IQ) of children with fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • Normal.
    • Mildly intellectual disability (IQ 60–70).
    • Moderate intellectual disability (IQ 50–60).
    • Severe intellectual disability (IQ less than 50).
  14. What language problems can be expected in children with fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • They are deaf and do not learn to speak.
    • They only learn to use a few words and cannot be understood.
    • There is delay in speaking.
    • There are usually no language problems.
  15. What behaviour problems are common in children with fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • They are often confused and get lost due to repeated fits.
    • Stealing, lying and aggressive behaviour are common.
    • They are happy, easy-going children.
    • They usually do not have behaviour problems.
  16. What congenital malformations are most common in children with fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • Neural tube defects.
    • Very small eyes.
    • Duodenal atresia.
    • Congenital heart defects.
  17. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome should:
    • Not be sent to school.
    • Only be sent to a special school.
    • Be sent to a normal school but need extra help.
    • Be sent to any school.
  18. Infants with fetal alcohol syndrome should:
    • Not be breastfed as alcohol crosses in the breast milk in large amounts.
    • All be formula fed.
    • Be breastfed if possible.
    • Be breastfed as alcohol does not cross into the breast milk.
  19. Women are at high risk of having an infant with fetal alcohol syndrome if:
    • Their previous child had fetal alcohol syndrome.
    • They are teenagers.
    • Their own father is an alcoholic.
    • They drank heavily but stopped before this pregnancy.
  20. How should a woman at high risk of delivering an infant with fetal alcohol syndrome be managed?
    • She should be sterilised (have a tubal ligation).
    • She should be admitted to a psychiatric hospital and forced to stop drinking.
    • She should be counselled and supported by the community.
    • She should be treated with anticonvulsants to protect the fetus.