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Test 1: Virology and Epidemiology

  1. What is Ebola?
    • A country in Central Africa
    • A common name for Ebola virus disease
    • A form of malaria recently discovered in West Africa
    • A serious disease spread by lice
  2. What do viruses need to survive and multiply?
    • A host cell
    • Red blood cells
    • Blood agar culture medium
    • A culture solution rich in glucose
  3. Viral haemorrhagic fevers include:
    • Malaria
    • Typhoid
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Marburg fever
  4. Congo fever virus can be transmitted to humans by:
    • Mosquitoes
    • Bites by a bat
    • Ticks
    • Lice
  5. Eating bushmeat is an important source of:
    • Ebola
    • Yellow fever
    • Dengue fever
    • Lassa fever
  6. Touching or washing corpses in a traditional ceremony may be responsible for spreading:
    • Rift valley fever
    • Chikungunya fever
    • Ebola
    • Crimean fever
  7. What is the incubation period of Ebola?
    • 2 to 5 days
    • 2 to 7 days
    • 2 to 21 days
    • 2 to 40 days
  8. Which body fluids may contain Ebola virus?
    • Blood only
    • Vomitus and diarrhoea stool only
    • Semen and vaginal secretions only
    • All body fluids
  9. Ebola is infectious:
    • Throughout the incubation period
    • When the patient is clinically ill
    • Only when the patient starts to bleed
    • During the 21 days after the patient has clinically recovered
  10. Ebola virus may be transmitted:
    • By contact with a person’s mucous membranes
    • By droplet spread when coughing
    • By direct contact with intact skin
    • Sexually for a year after the illness
  11. Ebola was first described:
    • In ancient Greece
    • In South Africa in 1953
    • In the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1976
    • In Sierra Leone in 2004
  12. One of the countries most affected with Ebola during the current outbreak is:
    • Sudan
    • Tanzania
    • Senegal
    • Liberia
  13. Why are there so many infected cases in the current outbreak of Ebola?
    • Because the climate is hot and damp
    • Because of overcrowding in urban areas
    • Because of poor hygiene in rural areas
    • Because of poor mosquito control measures
  14. The risk of a healthcare worker becoming infected with Ebola virus:
    • Is the same as the general population
    • Is low if they wash their hands well after touching a patient with Ebola
    • Is high if they do not use standard precautions correctly
    • Is so high that it is best if the family care for the patient
  15. The most important principle in investigating a case of suspected Ebola is to:
    • Get as many laboratory investigations as possible
    • Only do essential investigations
    • Choose the cheapest investigations
    • Avoid taking a blood sample as the patient may start bleeding severely
  16. What is a bio-safety laboratory?
    • A small mobile laboratory in the tropical forest
    • A fully automated laboratory that does not need laboratory staff
    • A laboratory with maximum safety features
    • A standard hospital laboratory
  17. What laboratory test can be used to confirm the clinical diagnosis of Ebola?
    • ELISA or PCR
    • Standard light microscopy
    • A skin test
    • A full blood count and liver function tests
  18. What laboratory tests are useful to detect other diseases which may be confused with Ebola?
    • Throat swab and viral culture for influenza
    • Serum bilirubin and packed cell volume for yellow fever
    • Malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and smear
    • Blood culture for Marburg fever
  19. How should a laboratory specimen be transported?
    • The information form should be wrapped tightly around the test tube
    • The test tube should be placed in a screw-top container and then another container such as a leak-proof plastic box with a secure lid
    • The test tube should be placed in an open container of ice
    • No special precautions are needed
  20. How can a laboratory specimen be safely processed?
    • It should be centrifuged first to decontaminate it
    • The test tube containing the specimen should be passed through a flame a few times to kill the virus
    • A few drops of chlorine should be added to the specimen as soon as it is opened
    • Full personal protective equipment should be worn when handling the specimen