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Test 3: Risk assessment and risk management in IPC

  1. Risk assessment:
    • Is not required in the healthcare environment
    • Is a process that identifies, evaluates and controls hazards in healthcare
    • Is used only to identify potential hazards in healthcare
    • Identifies hazards to patients only.
  2. The order of steps in a risk assessment cycle is:
    • Identify, evaluate, assess severity, implement interventions, continue to monitor problem
    • Evaluate, assess severity, identify, implement interventions, continue to monitor problem
    • Implement interventions, identify, evaluate, assess severity, continue to monitor problem
    • Identify, continue to monitor problem, evaluate, assess severity, implement interventions.
  3. Risk assessment should be performed:
    • When a patient is admitted to the intensive care unit
    • Every time a needlestick injury occurs
    • When a new service, instrument, procedure or problem is identified
    • Before administering a new type of medication.
  4. Risk assessment should be performed by:
    • An experienced IPC practitioner with input from relevant staff
    • An experienced clinician in charge of the ward or clinical area
    • The healthcare facility manager
    • The IPC committee at a healthcare facility.
  5. Hazards or risks in healthcare are:
    • Independent of the severity of consequences for a particular hazard
    • Classified as high, medium or low risk
    • Classified as serious or minimal risk
    • Not possible to classify, as they are all of a serious nature.
  6. Implementation of risk management in healthcare:
    • Is the responsibility of healthcare facility managers
    • Increases the rate of healthcare-associated infections
    • Does not involve the IPC practitioner
    • Can increase the safety of patients, healthcare workers and visitors.
  7. The purpose of risk management in healthcare is:
    • Improve the overall quality of care provided
    • Implement programmes to reduce all forms of harm in healthcare
    • To identify staff and areas where sub-standard care is delivered
    • To save the healthcare facility money.
  8. Successful risk management programmes need:
    • Punishment for staff members who don’t comply with recommendations
    • A lot of financial resources to implement
    • Effective leadership from managers and clinician ownership
    • The approval of all stakeholders in the healthcare facility.
  9. The following interventions aim to reduce healthcare-associated infections:
    • Standard and transmission-based precautions
    • Universal precautions
    • The clean hospital programme
    • The adverse medication events registry.
  10. Standard precautions protect:
    • Healthcare workers only
    • Patients only
    • Visitors only
    • Healthcare workers, patients and visitors.
  11. Standard precautions:
    • Apply only to clinical staff (doctors and nurses)
    • Apply only to patients known to have a transmissible - pathogen
    • Reduce infection risk from both known and unrecognised sources
    • Are not cost-effective in reducing infections.
  12. Transmission-based precautions:
    • Are implemented based on a pathogens known route/s of transmission
    • Only one type of precaution may be implemented per patient
    • Are implemented in place of standard precautions after the pathogen is identified
    • Involve placing warnings in the patient’s medical file.
  13. Infections spread by the droplet route include:
    • Tuberculosis, measles and varicella
    • Skin and wound infections
    • Urinary tract infections with E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae
    • Meningococcal meningitis and most respiratory viruses.
  14. Precautions required when nursing a newly diagnosed patient with pulmonary TB include:
    • Eye protection, gloves and isolation
    • Standard precautions
    • Airborne precautions
    • Aprons, cohort isolation and negative pressure ventilation.
  15. Risk-prone procedures when nursing a patient with influenza pneumonitis include:
    • Dressing a bedsore
    • Changing their urinary catheter bag
    • Inserting a naso-gastric tube
    • Changing a linen saver soiled with faeces.
  16. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is needed when:
    • Re-positioning or turning a patient in their bed
    • Feeding an infant his bottle
    • Washing a bed-bound patient
    • Handling linen soiled with urine or vomitus.
  17. The major risk from unsafe injection practices is transmission of:
    • Malaria
    • Blood-borne viruses
    • African sleeping sickness
    • Bloodstream infections.
  18. Safety-engineered devices:
    • Reduce the risk of needlestick injuries in healthcare workers
    • Are not cost-effective
    • Include fixed needles and auto disable syringes
    • Are not needed in low-resource settings as needlestick injury is uncommon.
  19. Care bundles:
    • Are not evidence-based
    • Are implemented for device-associated infections only
    • Require compliance to two or more bundle elements
    • Require buy-in and commitment from a multi-disciplinary team.
  20. As bundle compliance increases the infection rate being monitored should:
    • Increase
    • Stay the same
    • Decrease
    • Not be influenced by changes in bundle compliance.