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Please choose the one, most correct answer to each question or statement.

Test 1: Failure to breathe at birth and resuscitation

  1. How many infants breathe well at birth?
    • 50%
    • 75%
    • 80%
    • 90%
  2. Which vital sign is included in the Apgar score?
    • Temperature
    • Heart rate
    • Meconium staining
    • Oedema
  3. Most newborn infants that breathe well after delivery should have:
    • Pink hands at birth
    • Pink feet at birth
    • Pink hands and feet by 1 minute
    • A pink tongue by 1 minute
  4. A normal Apgar score at 1 minute is:
    • Above 10
    • 7–10
    • 3–7
    • Less than 3
  5. The Apgar score at 1 minute should be determined:
    • In all newborn infants
    • Only when there have been signs of fetal distress
    • Only if the infant does not breathe well after birth
    • Only if the infant needs mask ventilation
  6. What is the value of the 1 minute Apgar score?
    • It predicts brain damage.
    • It confirms fetal hypoxia.
    • It is used to assess the infant’s clinical condition at birth.
    • It is used to assess gestational age.
  7. What is the value of a 5 minute Apgar score?
    • It is used to define ‘failure to breathe at birth’.
    • It is used to assess the success or failure of resuscitation.
    • It helps to decide whether further resuscitation is hopeless.
    • It accurately predicts whether the infant will develop cerebral palsy.
  8. In which of the following situations would you anticipate that the infant will need resuscitation at birth?
    • Caesarean section under general anaesthesia
    • Caesarean section under epidural anaesthesia
    • Mother had pethidine 8 hours before delivery
    • Mother received nitrous oxide during the second stage of labour
  9. All the equipment for basic resuscitation is needed:
    • In operating theatres only
    • In level 2 hospitals only
    • In level 3 hospitals only
    • In all hospitals and clinics where infants are delivered
  10. If an infant does not breathe immediately after birth, what do you do first?
    • Stimulate the infant by drying.
    • Start chest compressions.
    • Cool the infant.
    • Give naloxone by intramuscular injection.
  11. Which staff members need to be able to resuscitate infants:
    • Doctors only
    • Midwives only
    • Doctors and senior midwives only
    • All staff who conduct deliveries
  12. After being well dried which infants should have their mouth and pharynx suctioned:
    • Preterm infants
    • Infants born by Caesarean section
    • Infants that fail to breathe well
    • All newborn infants
  13. Which infants should be resuscitated with oxygen?
    • Infants who fail to respond to good bag and mask ventilation
    • Preterm infants
    • Meconium stained infants
    • All infants
  14. An infant who cannot be adequately ventilated with bag and mask should:
    • Be intubated and ventilated.
    • Be given chest compressions.
    • Be given adrenaline.
    • Receive no further resuscitation as it has probably suffered brain damage.
  15. Which of the following rates is recommended for ventilating a newborn infant?
    • 20 breaths per minute
    • 40 breaths per minute
    • 80 breaths per minute
    • 140 breaths per minute
  16. Naloxone reverses the respiratory depression caused by:
    • Barbiturates
    • General anaesthesia
    • Diazepam (Valium)
    • Pethidine and morphine
  17. The infant’s chance of survival is poor if:
    • The 1 minute Apgar score is low.
    • The 5 minute Apgar score is low.
    • The 20 minute Apgar score is low.
    • The infant needs to be intubated and ventilated.
  18. If an infant is heavily meconium stained at delivery:
    • It is important to stimulate respiration before suctioning the airways.
    • The mouth should be suctioned before the shoulders are delivered.
    • The mouth should only be suctioned after the infant is completely delivered.
    • Only the nose should be suctioned.
  19. Which size of catheter should be used to suction a meconium-stained infant at birth?
    • F 3.5
    • F 5
    • F 6
    • F 10
  20. Severe hypoxia before delivery causing fetal distress:
    • Will always result in stillbirth or neonatal death.
    • May cause transient or permanent brain damage.
    • Does not damage the heart and kidneys.
    • Is an indication not to resuscitate the infant at birth.