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Test 10: Respiratory distress and apnoea

  1. Which one of the following clinical signs is used to diagnose respiratory distress?
    • Pallor
    • Decreased air entry of the chest
    • Recession
    • Pyrexia
  2. Tachypnoea is defined as a respiratory rate equal or greater than:
    • 20 breaths per minute
    • 40 breaths per minute
    • 60 breaths per minute
    • 80 breaths per minute
  3. Grunting is an important sign of respiratory distress and is heard during:
    • Inspiration
    • Crying
    • Apnoea
    • Expiration
  4. Infants with hyaline membrane disease should be:
    • Handled frequently to prevent apnoea
    • Handled as little as possible
    • Suctioned every hour
    • Given antibiotics
  5. Hyaline membrane disease is caused by:
    • Lack of surfactant
    • Too much surfactant
    • Infection
    • Too much fluid in the lungs
  6. A diagnosis of hyaline membrane disease is likely with:
    • Pus cells and bacteria in the gastric aspirate at birth
    • A positive VDRL test
    • A chest X-ray showing hyperexpanded lungs
    • A chest X-ray showing a small lungs with granular lung fields
  7. Hyaline membrane disease is commonly seen in:
    • Meconium-stained infants
    • Preterm infants
    • Underweight for gestational age infants
    • Postterm infants
  8. Hyaline membrane disease can be expected to:
    • Improve steadily after birth
    • Steadily become worse after birth for about 6 hours then improve
    • Steadily become worse after birth for 48 to 72 hours before starting to improve
    • Only start to recover after 1 week
  9. Where should an infant with hyaline membrane disease be managed?
    • In the postnatal ward with its mother
    • In a clinic
    • In a level 1 hospital
    • In a level 2 or 3 hospital
  10. The commonest cause of respiratory distress is:
    • Hyaline membrane disease
    • Hypothermia
    • Wet lung syndrome
    • Meconium aspiration
  11. The wet lung syndrome:
    • Improves during the first 2 to 3 days.
    • Gradually gets worse after delivery.
    • Should be treated with antibiotics.
    • Is usually fatal.
  12. A hyperinflated chest in an infant with respiratory distress suggests a diagnosis of:
    • Meconium aspiration syndrome
    • Hyaline membrane disease
    • Patent ductus arteriosus
    • Pneumonia
  13. Meconium aspiration syndrome can be prevented by:
    • Suctioning the airways after the infant has started to breathe
    • Suctioning the airways before the infant starts to breathe
    • Giving the infant steroids
    • Washing out the stomach
  14. Which is a quick way of diagnosing pneumothorax?
    • Transilluminate the chest.
    • Take an X-ray of the abdomen.
    • Insert a chest drain.
    • Do a shake test on the gastric aspirate at birth.
  15. What is a common cause of heart failure in newborn infants?
    • Dehydration
    • Patent ductus arteriosus
    • Mitral stenosis
    • Hyaline membrane disease
  16. An offensive smell at birth in an infant with respiratory distress suggests a diagnosis of:
    • Meconium aspiration syndrome
    • Pneumonia
    • Syphilis
    • Tetanus
  17. Periodic breathing:
    • Causes pallor.
    • Causes tachycardia.
    • Causes bradycardia and central cyanosis.
    • Causes neither central cyanosis nor bradycardia.
  18. Apnoea is diagnosed when:
    • An infant stops breathing for 5 seconds.
    • An infant stops breathing for 15 seconds but remains pink.
    • An infant becomes cyanosed but does not stop breathing.
    • An infant stops breathing for 20 seconds and develops cyanosis and bradycardia.
  19. Apnoea is common in:
    • Infants with septicaemia
    • Underweight for gestational age infants
    • Overweight for gestational age infants
    • Postterm infants
  20. How is caffeine given to prevent apnoea?
    • Orally
    • By intramuscular injection
    • Intravenously
    • It is rubbed onto the infant’s chest