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Test 5: Care of high-risk and sick infants

  1. Classifying an infant as high risk indicates that:
    • The infant is sick.
    • The infant will probably die.
    • The infant has a greater chance of developing a problem than most infants.
    • The infant must be treated urgently.
  2. Which event suggests that an infant should be classified as high risk?
    • Term delivery
    • Low birth weight
    • An Apgar score of 8 at 1 minute
    • A birth weight that is appropriate for the gestational age
  3. What is the first step in the management of a high-risk infant?
    • Treat the clinical problem as early as possible.
    • Monitor the vital signs.
    • Identify the expected problem.
    • Take steps to prevent the problem.
  4. Why is it important to monitor a high-risk infant?
    • To obtain hospital records
    • To reassure the parents
    • To detect problems
    • To treat the infant
  5. Which of the following signs indicates that the infant is sick?
    • Preterm delivery
    • Birth weight of 1500 g
    • Delivery by Caesarean section
    • Apnoea
  6. Which of the following is called a vital sign?
    • Birth weight
    • Jaundice
    • Heart rate
    • Oedema
  7. A sick infant should be handled as little as possible because:
    • Excessive handling may cause apnoea.
    • Handling slows an infant’s weight gain.
    • Handling may cause bruising.
    • Handling increases the risk of bacterial infection.
  8. Sick infants should be weighed every day because:
    • Weight loss may indicate dehydration.
    • Weight loss may indicate that the infant is bleeding into the brain.
    • Weight gain indicates that treatment can be stopped.
    • Weight gain indicates that the infant is well.
  9. How often should routine observations be made on a sick infant?
    • Every 5 minutes
    • Every 15 minutes
    • Every 30 minutes
    • Every 60 minutes
  10. An important sign of shock in a newborn infant is:
    • A low blood pressure
    • Sweating
    • Central cyanosis
    • Hypothermia
  11. What is a normal capillary filling time?
    • 1 second or less
    • 3 seconds or less
    • 5 seconds or less
    • More than 5 seconds
  12. An important cause of shock in newborn infants is:
    • Hypothermia
    • Anaemia
    • Hypoxia
    • Hyperbilirubinaemia
  13. Which of the following fluids should be used to treat shock?
    • 5% dextrose
    • 10% dextrose
    • Neonatalyte
    • Normal saline
  14. An important cause of fits in newborn infants is:
    • Hypoglycaemia
    • Hypothermia
    • Preterm delivery
    • Cephalhaematoma
  15. Which drug should be used to stop a fit?
    • Penicillin
    • Pethidine
    • Phenobarbitone
    • Hydroxyzine (Aterax)
  16. The pH of the blood is measured with:
    • Indicator strips
    • A thermometer
    • A pulse oximeter in the nursery
    • A blood gas analyser in a laboratory
  17. The umbilical arterial pH of the blood in a newborn infant is:
    • 7.20–7.30
    • 7.30–7.40
    • 7.40–7.50
    • 7.50–7.60
  18. What measurement suggests that a low pH is caused by a metabolic acidosis?
    • High PaCO₂
    • Normal PaCO₂
    • Base deficit greater than 5
    • Base deficit less than 5
  19. What is used to correct severe metabolic acidosis?
    • Phototherapy
    • 4% sodium bicarbonate
    • Improved ventilation
    • 10% glucose
  20. The correct management of respiratory acidosis is:
    • Observe the infant with an apnoea monitor.
    • Give the infant oxygen in a headbox.
    • Give the infant 4% sodium bicarbonate by intravenous infusion.
    • Ventilate the infant.