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Test 1: Introduction to perinatal HIV

  1. What is HIV?
    • A retrovirus
    • A herpes virus
    • The human influenza virus
    • The cause of syphilis
  2. What is AIDS?
    • A serious illness caused by a virus
    • A fatal disease whose cause is unknown
    • A common cause of abnormal sexual behaviour
    • An acute bacterial illness transmitted by sexual intercourse
  3. You can become infected with HIV by:
    • Sharing a cup or plate
    • Social kissing
    • Unprotected sexual intercourse
    • Donating blood
  4. Which body secretions may contain large amounts of HIV?
    • Urine
    • Stool
    • Blood
    • Saliva
  5. Which blood tests are usually used to screen adults for HIV infection?
    • VDRL or RPR
    • ELISA or rapid test
    • PCR or p24 antigen
    • TPHA or FTA
  6. Common features of the acute illness following HIV infection (acute seroconversion illness) are:
    • Blood and protein in the urine
    • Vaginal or urethral discharge
    • Anaemia and jaundice
    • Sore throat and rash
  7. Usually the latent phase between the time of HIV infection and developing AIDS in adults is:
    • Two to four weeks
    • Six to 12 months
    • One to five years
    • Five to 15 years
  8. What are the most common signs of symptomatic HIV infection in adults?
    • Weight loss and chronic diarrhoea
    • Oedema and heart failure
    • Cyanosis and wheezing
    • Jaundice and abdominal distension
  9. What is an important opportunistic infection in AIDS?
    • Syphilis
    • Pneumocystis
    • Measles
    • Influenza
  10. AIDS can be cured?
    • Always
    • Often
    • Sometimes
    • Never
  11. What other disease can increase the risk of becoming infected with HIV?
    • Tuberculosis
    • Kaposi’s sarcoma
    • Syphilis
    • Influenza
  12. HIV is infectious:
    • Only during the first few weeks after infection
    • During the latent phase when the patient feels well
    • Only when the signs of AIDS appear
    • At any time after infection
  13. How does HIV damage the immune system?
    • By destroying CD4 lymphocytes
    • By reducing the number of CD8 lymphocytes
    • By lowering the levels of antibody
    • By interfering with the function of the polymorphs
  14. What type of drugs are nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV)?
    • Antibiotics
    • Protease inhibitors
    • Non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    • Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  15. What is a common minor side effect of zidovudine (AZT)?
    • Tinnitus (ringing sound in the ears)
    • Sore throat
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Rash
  16. What drug is commonly used to prevent an opportunistic infection?
    • Penicillin
    • Co-trimoxazole (Septran, Bactrim, Purbac)
    • Nystatin (mycostatin)
    • Streptomycin
  17. What is the management of a patient with AIDS?
    • Management does not alter the course of the disease and, therefore, is not recommended.
    • These patients should not be treated as it is too expensive.
    • Management with ARV drugs can make a big difference to the quality of the patient’s life.
    • HIV patients should be sent home to die quickly as treatment only prolongs their suffering.
  18. How can healthcare workers reduce the risk of HIV infection?
    • By refusing to care for AIDS patients
    • By washing their hands after touching patients with HIV infection
    • By wearing masks and gowns when caring for patients with HIV infection
    • By adopting universal precautions
  19. What is the correct handling of sharps to avoid accidental injury?
    • Use a sharps container
    • Always resheath a needle after it has been used
    • Always wipe a needle with alcohol after it has been used
    • Only clear away the needle after the procedure has been completed
  20. What prophylaxis should be given to a healthcare worker after an accidental needle-stick injury when collecting blood from an HIV-positive patient?
    • Penicillin should be given immediately
    • Truvada and Aluvia should be started within two hours
    • Hepatitis A vaccine should be given within 72 hours
    • Co-trimoxazole