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Test 2: HIV in pregnancy

  1. What percentage of pregnant women in South Africa are infected with HIV?
    • Less than 5%
    • Between 5% and 10%
    • About 30%
    • More than 50%
  2. Which test can be used to screen pregnant women for HIV?
    • CD4 count
    • Viral load
    • VDRL test
    • Rapid test
  3. What is the risk of transmission of HIV from a mother to her fetus during pregnancy, labour and vaginal delivery if they do not have ARV prophylaxis?
    • Less than 10%
    • Between 10 and 30%
    • Between 30 and 50%
    • More than 50%
  4. The following women are at an increased risk of transmitting HIV to their fetus:
    • Women who become infected with HIV during the pregnancy
    • Women who are infected with HIV a few years before they fall pregnant
    • Women who are pregnant for the first time
    • Women who have had previous pregnancies
  5. Which women at an antenatal clinic should be counselled about the benefits of HIV screening?
    • Only women who request an HIV test
    • All women
    • Only unmarried women
    • Only women with syphilis
  6. How should women be told the result of the screening test?
    • It is best to inform them by post as this is the most private way to give them the results.
    • They should be told in small groups so that they can give each other emotional support.
    • They should be individually counselled and told the results.
    • Only HIV-positive women should be told their test result.
  7. What precautions should a pregnant woman take to avoid becoming infected with HIV?
    • Use a diaphragm.
    • Douche with water after sexual intercourse.
    • Use a condom.
    • There is no need to take precautions once she is pregnant.
  8. What effect may asymptomatic HIV infection have on pregnancy?
    • HIV has no effect on pregnancy.
    • Pneumonia is more common.
    • Placenta praevia is more common.
    • Gestational proteinuric hypertension (GPH or PET) is more common.
  9. Which one of the following procedures may increase the risk of HIV transmission during pregnancy?
    • Amniocentesis
    • Vaginal examination
    • Abdominal palpation
    • Taking a cervical cytology (PAP) smear
  10. Which ARV drug is used to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the fetus?
    • Co-trimoxazole
    • INH
    • FDC
    • Tetracycline
  11. How may ARV drugs reduce the risk of vertical transmission?
    • By inducing labour early
    • By preventing fetal distress
    • By reducing the viral load
    • By treating syphilis
  12. Providing lifelong ARV treatment to all pregnant women who are HIV positive is called:?
    • WHO option A
    • WHO option B
    • WHO option B+
    • WHO option C
  13. There is a concern about a possible association with congenital abnormalities and which of the following ARV drugs, when used in the first trimester?
    • AZT
    • TDF
    • FTC
    • EFV
  14. Which statement regarding the use of multivitamins by pregnant woman who is HIV positive is true?
    • They will not reduce the risk of vertical transmission of HIV.
    • They will reduce the risk of vertical transmission by 50%.
    • They will block the effects of most ARV drugs.
    • They will lower the CD4 count.
  15. Is AIDS an important cause of maternal death in South Africa?
    • It is not a cause of maternal death.
    • It is an uncommon cause of maternal death.
    • In the future it may become an important cause of maternal death.
    • It is the most common cause of maternal death.
  16. May pregnancy cause a more rapid progression of HIV infection from stage 3 to 4?
    • Yes
    • Only in older women
    • Only with a twin pregnancy
    • No
  17. Which opportunistic infection is most common in pregnant women with stage 3 HIV infection?
    • Oesophageal candidiasis
    • Pulmonary tuberculosis
    • Pneumocystis pneumonia
    • Cryptococcal meningitis
  18. Prophylactic co-trimoxazole is given to pregnant women with AIDS to prevent:
    • Oesophageal candidiasis
    • Tuberculosis
    • Herpes zoster
    • Pneumocystis pneumonia
  19. What is an important side effect of TDF?
    • Anaemia
    • Severe skin rash
    • Renal failure
    • Bad dreams
  20. Which drugs are used to treat tuberculosis during pregnancy in women who are HIV positive?
    • Anti-TB drugs should only be started after the infant is born
    • Rifampicin, INH, pyrazinamide and ethambutol ( Rifafour)
    • Rifampicin, INH, pyrazinamide only
    • Rifampicin alone