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Test 1: Care of infants at birth

Please choose the one most correct answer to each question or statement.

  1. When should the umbilical cord be clamped in a normal infant?
    • At 2 to 3 minutes after delivery
    • After the infant has been breathing well for 5 minutes
    • Immediately after delivery
    • After the placenta has been delivered
  2. When should the infant be given to the mother?
    • After the mother has had a chance to sleep
    • As soon as possible
    • When the infant has had a bath
    • It does not matter when the infant is given to the mother
  3. Which infants should receive vitamin K1 (Konakion) after delivery?
    • Only preterm infants
    • Only infants with a low Apgar score
    • Only infants who have had a traumatic or difficult delivery
    • All infants
  4. What should be placed in the eyes of infants after birth?
    • Nothing
    • Sterile water to remove meconium or vernix
    • An antibiotic ointment such as chloromycetin
    • Colostrum
  5. A newborn infant is said to have failed to breathe well at delivery:
    • If the infant does not breathe well immediately after delivery
    • If the infant’s hands and feet are still blue at 1 minute after delivery
    • If the infant has not cried by 5 minutes after delivery
    • If the infant does not breathe well or cry after it has been well dried
  6. Which vital sign is included in the Apgar score?
    • Temperature
    • Heart rate
    • Meconium staining
    • Oedema
  7. The Apgar score at 1 minute should be determined:
    • In all newborn infants
    • Only when there have been signs of fetal distress
    • Only if the infant does not breathe well after birth
    • Only if the infant needs mask ventilation
  8. What is the value of the 1 minute Apgar score?
    • It predicts brain damage
    • It confirms fetal hypoxia
    • It is used to document the infant’s clinical condition after birth
    • It is used to assess gestational age
  9. What is the value of the 5 minute Apgar score?
    • It indicates whether the infant is responding to resuscitation
    • If less than 7, it confirms that the infant will die
    • If 7 or more, it confirms that the infant will survive
    • It is used to decide whether cardiac massage is needed
  10. A normal Apgar score at 1 minute is:
    • Above 10
    • 7–10
    • 3–7
    • Less than 3
  11. What is a common cause of a low Apgar score?
    • Hypothermia
    • Excessive suctioning of the mouth and throat
    • Infection
    • Hyaline membrane disease
  12. Fetal hypoxia is defined as:
    • Failure to breathe after delivery
    • A low 1 minute Apgar score
    • Too little oxygen to the fetus
    • Intra-uterine death
  13. After delivery the following infants should have their mouth and throat suctioned:
    • Preterm infants
    • Infants born by Caesarean section
    • Infants that fail to breathe well after stimulation
    • All newborn infants
  14. Which health workers need to be able to resuscitate infants:
    • Doctors only
    • Midwives only
    • Doctors and senior midwives only
    • All those who conduct deliveries
  15. What is the most important step in resuscitating an infant?
    • Giving bag-and-mask ventilation
    • Starting cardiac massage
    • Cooling the infant
    • Giving naloxone by intramuscular injection
  16. An infant who still has a slow heart rate after receiving bag-and-mask ventilation should:
    • Be given chest compressions
    • Be given vitamin K1 (Konakion)
    • Be given adrenaline
    • Receive no further resuscitation as it has probably suffered brain damage
  17. Naloxone (Narcan) reverses the respiratory depression caused by:
    • Barbiturates
    • General anaesthesia
    • Diazepam (Valium)
    • Pethidine and morphine
  18. If an infant is heavily meconium stained at delivery:
    • It is important to stimulate respiration before suctioning the airways
    • The mouth should be suctioned before the shoulders are delivered
    • The mouth should only be suctioned after the infant is completely delivered
    • Only the nose should be suctioned
  19. Which size of catheter should be used to suction a meconium-stained infant at birth?
    • F 3.5
    • F 5
    • F 6
    • F 10
  20. A stomach washout should be given to:
    • All low-birth-weight infants
    • Infants with a low 1 minute Apgar score
    • Infants who vomit thick meconium
    • All meconium-stained infants