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Test 4: Emergency management of infants

  1. The body temperature of a newborn infant should be measured by placing a mercury thermometer:
    • In the mouth
    • In the rectum
    • In the axilla (arm pit)
    • In the incubator
  2. The normal abdominal skin temperature in a newborn infant is:
    • 35.5–36.0 °C
    • 36.0–36.5 °C
    • 36.5–37.0 °C
    • 37.0–37.5 °C
  3. Glucose is stored in the body as glycogen in:
    • The brain
    • The red blood cells
    • The liver
    • Fat
  4. Hypoglycaemia is dangerous as it may cause:
    • Jaundice
    • Brain damage
    • Anaemia
    • Bleeding
  5. Which infants are at an increased risk of hypoglycaemia?
    • Infants who are breastfed
    • Female infants
    • Underweight-for-gestational-age infants
    • Jaundiced infants
  6. Hypoglycaemia:
    • Always presents with clinical signs
    • Never presents with clinical signs
    • May present with clinical signs
    • Usually kills the infant
  7. What is the treatment of mild hypoglycaemia?
    • Give a milk feed
    • Start an intravenous infusion
    • Give a single dose of hydrocortisone
    • Give insulin
  8. Severe hypoglycaemia in a preterm infant is best treated by:
    • Feeding the infant with breast milk
    • Giving 5% dextrose by nasogastric tube
    • Giving 50% dextrose by a nasogastric tube
    • Starting an intravenous infusion of 10% dextrose
  9. If an infant develops severe hypoglycaemia you should:
    • Repeat the blood glucose measurement in 30 minutes to assess whether it has improved
    • Treat the hypoglycaemia immediately
    • Refer the infant to the nearest newborn intensive care (level 3) unit for treatment
    • Try to contact a more senior staff member to treat the infant
  10. Which one of the following clinical signs is used to diagnose respiratory distress?
    • Pallor
    • Decreased air entry of the chest
    • Recession
    • Pyrexia
  11. Tachypnoea in a newborn is defined as a respiratory rate greater than:
    • 20 breaths per minute
    • 40 breaths per minute
    • 60 breaths per minute
    • 80 breaths per minute
  12. What is a common cause of respiratory distress?
    • Starvation
    • Jaundice
    • Wet lung syndrome
    • Meningitis
  13. Hyaline membrane disease is caused by:
    • Too little surfactant
    • Too much surfactant
    • Infection
    • Too much fluid in the lungs
  14. A negative shake test on a sample of gastric aspirate after birth in an infant with respiratory distress suggests a diagnosis of:
    • Wet lung syndrome
    • Pneumonia
    • Pneumothorax
    • Hyaline membrane disease
  15. Hyaline membrane disease is commonly seen in:
    • Meconium-stained infants
    • Preterm infants
    • Underweight-for-gestational-age infants
    • Post-term infants
  16. Hyaline membrane disease can be expected to:
    • Improve steadily after birth
    • Steadily become worse after birth for about 6 hours then improve
    • Steadily become worse after birth for 48 to 72 hours before starting to improve
    • Only start to recover after 1 week
  17. Wet lung syndrome:
    • Improves during the first 2 to 3 days
    • Gradually gets worse after delivery
    • Should be treated with antibiotics
    • Is usually fatal
  18. What is the normal oxygen saturation in the arterial blood of a newborn infant?
    • 80–85%
    • 86–92%
    • 90–95%
    • 95–100%
  19. Excess oxygen in the inspired air may cause:
    • Deafness
    • Blindness
    • Paralysis
    • Mental retardation
  20. The amount of oxygen in a headbox can be accurately determined by:
    • Deciding whether the tongue is pink or cyanosed
    • Measuring the flow of oxygen into the head box
    • Using a saturation monitor
    • Using an oxygen monitor